Wendt is more with the realists when they say that the state system is in a state of anarchy and that the states are competing for survival. Theorists agree that Wendt's theory has important implications for the advancement of international politics. "Contrary to neorealism's static materialist structuralism, Wendt's social theory bears on the 'tranformative potential' of international politics. His theory claims to reveal the potential for a more cooperative international relations," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Wendt
International Relations is supposed to have started with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, from where the modern system of States emerged and since then, various theories have cropped up. Answering a question why we have to thearise everything, Brown says: "For the majority of theorists in this area, the answer is clear - explain in order to predict, predict in order to control, or if control is impossible, then at least to minimise the consequences of undesirable states of affairs and take advantage of whatever opportunities exist," (Brown, 2002, p.12).
This word comes from the German word, realpolitic meaning foreign policy based on practical concerns, and the word attained its credence because of Bismarck. This theory assumes that the States themselves are the actors, and these individual actors are influenced by the structure of international anarchy. It is also assumed that World politics is a voluntarily self-helping system and each state is interested in its own national interest and there is always conflict between one state and another. Its one more assumption is that diplomacy is not for solving the problems, but to serve national interests and the main instrument of success is the military force.
Since the end of Second World War, Realism has bhecome one of the major theories of International Relations which leads to political realism, Winston Churchill was a powerful advocate of realist foreign policy.
"The perspective was well suited to the early phase of the Cold War. The power struggle between the world's two superpowers dominated international politics, and the United States sought to contain Soviet expansionism," claims (Knutsen, 1997, p.241).
It could be defensive realism with national interest in its core and its interpretation connects with international security, anarchy in international relations and Michiavelli's realism. Thucidydes is supposed to be the founder of this school. Michiavelli, though condemned for preaching amoral ways during his lifetime, is the real propagator of Realism. Morganthau is crdited with systemetizing classical realism with his famous six principles.
Liberalism assumes that states can cooperate with one another through institutional mechanisms and bargaining and they are one key actor in the arena of World politics, and here states are not independent, but interdependent. It also argues that international institutions like Transnational Corporations, IMF, WHO, United Nations are actors in a different sphere, and have a role to play.
Francis Fukuyama said that the ideology of