As observed by Kroeber & Kluckhon (1952) "culture is something that is shared by all or almost all members of some social group, something that the older members of the group try to pass on to the younger members, and something that shapes behavior."Thus it can be inferred that any culture consists of the ideas about how the people should live by specifying the ideals, values, and assumptions that shapes the specific behavioural patterns of different people. According to Brislin (1993) culture is the creation of people, passed on from one generation to the other. He further states that there are bound to be emotional reactions when the particular values of one culture are being violated; in circumstances where the expected behaviours of a culture are not followed also there may occur some emotional outbursts. Similarly the effect of religion on the culture is one thing that can not be ignored. Culture therefore is bound by various limiting factors that are dependent on the locations, regions or countries.
The effect of such cultural differences can be expected to have their impact on the employee bahaviour in varying dimensions and degrees in different countries in the business organizations as well. Especially in an era of economic globalization, the business and industrial houses disperse to nations that are geographically far off breaking all barriers. Under such circumstance it becomes imperative for the multinational and transnational companies to employ the local workforce along with the expatriates. While doing so in order to improve the organizational performance the firms have to bear in mind the impact of the cultural differences on the behaviours of the employees that may ultimately affect the individuals' as well as the organization's performance. In this context this paper presents a broad idea on the subject of 'international organizational behaviour' and its effects on the overall organizational performance detailing in particular the applicability of universalistic theories of organizational behaviour in the era of a multinational business environment.
2.0 Role of Culture in Organisational Behaviour:
Brown (1995) defines organizational culture "as the set of norms, beliefs, principles and ways of behaving that together give each organization a distinctive character". Scholarly writers concur that the organizational culture is determined even from the time of inception and is dependent on the organizational characters like the competitive environment and customer requirements. The culture is also dependent on the cultural values reflected by the communities to which the employees belong and also the behavioural patterns of the organisation's founders or the leaders who were responsible for the creation of such organization (eg Ott 1989; Gordon 1991).
Schein (1991) observes that just as the national culture has certain values and beliefs, the organization comprises of
1. "a pattern of shared basic assumptions,
2. invented, discovered, or developed by a given group,
3. as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration,
4. that has worked well enough to be considered valid, and, therefore,
5. is to be taught to new members of the group as the
6. correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems" (Schein 1991)
Normally the organizational culture is characterized to include language, concepts, boundaries and ideology that represent the group values and also described by the basis for allocation of the criteria like status, power, authority, rewards, punishment, friendship and respect (Schein 1991). Thus it may be observed that the culture has a very important role to play in organization irrespective of the fact that the organization is a domestic one or an international one.
The organizational culture is sometimes construed to provide the same meaning as 'corporate culture' which is