Forms and Substance Dualism

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Philosophy
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Dualism is the belief that reality consists of two different, separate substances: that of the mental and that of the physical. "In philosophy of mind, the belief that the mental and physical are deeply different in kind: thus the mental is at least not identical with the physical." It directly opposes materialism, as dualism dictates that the mind is unidentifiable to the body, as opposed to stating that the mind and body exist as one…

Introduction

If, conversely, dualism can be convincingly maintained, then our evidence obtained from studies of the brain would simply not suffice in gaining any form of insight into the human mind. Dualism is a logical necessity: sustained as a question that does not need to be answered as it can be fulfilled a priori, owing to the fact that humans have the ability to seek introspection regularly. (Almog, 129-34) Indeed, we experience the separation between our body and mind, which would support the notion that they are separate entities and empirical evidence is not required to prove such a concept. However, this does not mean that dualistic theory is foolproof: for example, can our experience be enough to prove such a concept Indeed, many philosophers are not in favor of dualistic ontology.
The first classical representation of dualism can be recognized in Plato's work; more specifically originating in The Phaedo. Interestingly, in dualism, 'mind' is contrasted with 'body', but in different historical periods, different aspects of the mind have been the center of attention. For example, in the classical period it was the intellect of the mind, which was considered to be the crux of what separated us from the physical. ...
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