StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Forms and Substance Dualism - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
Forms and Substance Dualism

If, conversely, dualism can be convincingly maintained, then our evidence obtained from studies of the brain would simply not suffice in gaining any form of insight into the human mind. Dualism is a logical necessity: sustained as a question that does not need to be answered as it can be fulfilled a priori, owing to the fact that humans have the ability to seek introspection regularly. (Almog, 129-34) Indeed, we experience the separation between our body and mind, which would support the notion that they are separate entities and empirical evidence is not required to prove such a concept. However, this does not mean that dualistic theory is foolproof: for example, can our experience be enough to prove such a concept Indeed, many philosophers are not in favor of dualistic ontology.
The first classical representation of dualism can be recognized in Plato's work; more specifically originating in The Phaedo. Interestingly, in dualism, 'mind' is contrasted with 'body', but in different historical periods, different aspects of the mind have been the center of attention. For example, in the classical period it was the intellect of the mind, which was considered to be the crux of what separated us from the physical. However, from Descartes onwards, the opposition to materialism came from our apparent 'consciousness' and experience of 'sensation'. The emphasis on intellect is certainly echoed in Plato's work: as he believed (as did many other Greeks) that the body was a prison for the intellectual soul. Indeed Plato believed that the true substances are not physical bodies, which are ephemeral, but the eternal Forms of which bodies are imperfect copies. He came up with the idea of a realm of "Forms" and said that intellect was immaterial, for it does not last you, therefore Forms are immaterial, and thus intellect must link to those that it apprehends. He then continued to say that such a link forced the soul to want to leave the body to enter a realm of Forms. In his later writings, The Republic, Plato furthered his ideas on Forms and the soul; he claimed that not only was the soul the true form but belonged to a higher status within reality than the body did, and that the soul was a separate, immortal substance. Plato's study of dualism in The Phaedo was indeed complex, and more a metaphysical study regarding the imprisoned soul. However, it can be seen, especially amongst his writings in The Republic, that Plato was clear on his belief that the body and soul were separate entities, forming the base for philosophical extensions in more recent times.
Continuing from Plato, St Thomas Aquinas extended earlier works on dualism in his endeavor to unite philosophy with proof of God. Aquinas agreed with the Aristotelian notion that when the soul entered the body it animated it and gave it life; calling it anima. Moreover according to Aquinas, the soul operates independently of the body and it cannot decay; for only things that can break into parts can decay, Thus, following Aquinas' argument, the soul is able to survive death. He also said that through ...Show more

Summary

Dualism is the belief that reality consists of two different, separate substances: that of the mental and that of the physical. "In philosophy of mind, the belief that the mental and physical are deeply different in kind: thus the mental is at least not identical with the physical." It directly opposes materialism, as dualism dictates that the mind is unidentifiable to the body, as opposed to stating that the mind and body exist as one…
Author : lindsayrice
Forms and Substance Dualism essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Forms and Substance Dualism"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Dualism
Dualism has over the years been associated with several philosophers, thinkers and religious leaders. Prominent among these are Socrates, Plato, St. Augustine, the Hindu religion and Prophet Zoroaster. Each of these personalities and groups take dualism from a different perspective but they all seem to arrive at one major understanding that two all concepts of human existence, there are two forms.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Try to defend dualism as a viable philosophical position. Entertain objections to your arguments and reply showing how dualism c
So far, three arguments prove the validity of dualism and remain valid despite objections: the Knowledge Argument, the Argument on the Validity of Predicate Dualism, and Descartes’ Argument from Feigning. Metaphysical dualism is the doctrine that there exist two substances: a physical reality and an equivalent spiritual or mental reality.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Explain dualism about mind/body and explain the major problems for that view
One of the major issues which dualism deals with is whether mind is the part of the brain or whether it is completely separate from the brain. There are different opinions on this issue however, the debate is still undecided as to whether mind originates from the brain or it is completely separate from it.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Substance dualism is necessary for beings to have free will
Descarte’s argument is presented in seven steps; he claims that by virtue of his ability to perceive something, then it must mean that the thing has been made by God and its existence corresponds with his vision (Rodriguez-Pereyra 70). Secondly, the fact that two objects can be perceived as distinct from each other means that God can make them mutually exclusive, if the two things are capable of existing apart from each other, whether or not the actually do, then they must be distinct.
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
Substance dualism is necessary for beings to have free will
The duality argument rests solidly on the premises that the essence of the mind is thought while the essence of the body is extension; in this respect, the duality of essences implies the corresponding substances can exist separately and independently from each other.
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
Dualism
Essentially, this means that the concept of dualism accepts and reinforces the existence of a creator, or the cause, that would have created other worldly objects. Hence, the concepts of yin and yan according to the Chinese philosophy
12 pages (3000 words) Essay
Substance Dualism - argument rehersal
The former being is in itself conscious of its being while the latter is the external, not having any kind of mental properties. As a substance dualist myself, I would like to argue that I am a thinking thing or a purely mental being. What is it
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Discuss the impact on Psychology of Descartes' introduction of mind-body dualism
He has been faced with grave critiques since he tried to describe the two substances separate as well as unified (Grant, pp. 486, 2000). Descartes, quite technically, defends his idea by
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Dualism
According to him, the physical and spiritual aspects are two incompatible substances that have found a way of ‘coexisting’ in the human body (“Cartesian Dualism: Interaction of the Mind and Body”). Dualism can be looked at from two stances, as a
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Richard Swinburne, in his article Dualism Intact, gives what he calls an improved version of the argument that a soul can exist without a body, and that I am my soul. Paul Moser and Arnold vander Nat, in their article Surviving Souls, consider
Essentially, dualism is the basic observation of humans as being both matter and mind, with a certain degree of incompatibility between matter and mind. Matter is considered as inherently not aware while mind, on the other hand, is
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Hire a pro to write
a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment