The poet has taken an image that most people associate with tranquility and turned it into a depressing scene. The stanza ends with 'the eternal note of sadness' being brought in by the sea. The poet is comparing the sea to the sum of all human troubles. The sea is eternal just as human suffering is eternal. The sea has also seen all of the human suffering and it mirrors these in its roars and waves. Society has became a sea of conflicts with different interests clashing with political theories and the way hunger for new territories and subduing of people gave rise to irrational justifications.
2) Darwin's universe consisted of individuals who, in the course of time, would undergo a process called evolution. The guiding principle behind this evolution is the 'survival of the fittest' wherein the weak will become extinct and the strong will dominate the land. In this theory, some men are designed to be stronger than others while others, with their frailties, are designed to be extinguished.
The concept of the "survival of the fittest" is used to justify the notion that some men are born to govern while others exist to be governed. Individuals were subject to this rule whether they like it or not. This is the connection of Darwin's universe to our topic.
Geometric order, rigor and reductionism were seen as virtues of the Enlightenment. The modern movement points to reductionism and rationality as crucial aspects of Enlightenment thinking of which it is the inheritor, as opposed to irrationality and emotionalism. In this view, the Enlightenment represents the basis for modern ideas of liberalism against superstition and intolerance. Darwinism had a more irrational aspect justifying that some activities, repressive as it seems, is necessary even though it is based on the notion of superiority which is seen by many as irrational and unfounded. Romanticism regarded men as a work of art and place emotions at the forefront of reasoning while Darwinism presented a rather cold view of man with should have no feelings towards the acts of others. Remember that Darwinism forwards the notion that some acts, no matter how cruel, are necessary. Feelings have no place in the evolution of men. Darwininism also forwards the notion that inequality is an outgrowth of the social evolution of man. Instead of striving to change the society to resemble a utopia, let the gradual course of human social evolution take place with minimal disturbance.
Spencer is most associated with the Social Darwinism movement where the 'survival of the fittest' also governed the social development of humanity. However, in contrast to Darwin, he held that evolution had a direction and an end-point, the attainment of a final state of 'equilibrium.'
The end point of the evolutionary process would be the creation of 'the perfect man in the perfect society' with human beings becoming completely adapted to social life, as predicted in Spencer's first book. According to Spencer, humanity's handing down of his time's psychological constitution to the next generation and which we in turn would hand on to future generations, was in the process of gradual adaptation to the requirements of living in society. For example, aggression was a survival instinct which had been necessary in the