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Hobbes (15 88-1679) on the right to all - Essay Example

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Hobbes (15 88-1679) on the right to all

And therefore, as long as this natural right of every man to everything endureth, there can be no security to any man (how strong or wise so ever he be) of living out the time which nature ordinarily allowith men to live." (Leviathan, Chapter XIV). Hobbes supposes that liberty is a matter of political self-government.
For Hobbes liberty and equality was connected with non-obstruction, and with some form of sell-mastery. Liberty and equality is described as that a personal reedom is a matter of the range of things a person may do without being stopped or punished by others. Hobbes supposes that "I find yet a greater equality amongst men than that of strength. For prudence is but experience, which equal time equally bestows on all men in those things they equally apply themselves unto (Leviathan, Chapter XIII). Someone who does not engage in elaborate calculations before acting may be said to be excessively irrational. Irrationality of value to the pursuit of self-interest is prudence, which is similarly a virtue that it is possible to have too much of.
Each has the right to all because, according to Hobbes, there was nothing natural about the state; in the 'state of nature' men lived without law, without authority, and without any means of curbing one another's aggression. Each man is a self-governed and can do anything. In "Leviathan" Hobbes describes that it is irrational of anyone to lay down the means of his own preservation unless he can be sure others will do so too.
The state of nature is also is the state of war which means absence of established agreement for peace. For Hobbes force is the main quality during war and people are foolish to expect anything better from foreign states. The state of nature is a social and developed state. It can be characterized as war of all against: "war...of every man, against every man" (Leviathan, Chapter XIV). Each will be an enemy to all the rest. Human beings as they were not equipped with speech, with reason, with a sense of time, with any morality; they were lonely.
In the Chapter XIV Hobbes claims that there was one fundamental right of nature, and one equally fundamental law: the right was 'the Liberty each man hath, to use his own power, as he will himselfe, for the preservation of his own Nature', while the law was 'every man, ought to endeavour Peace, as farre as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it... he may seek, and use, all helps, and advantages of Warre' (Leviathan, Chapter XIV).
The concept of subjectivism is closely connected with individuality. Hobbes emphases qualitative variation among uniqueness, a conception of the cumulative and permanent, but not predetermined, development of larger contexts as a source for development, and an insistence on the irrationally founded subjective designs of historically particularized human actors as the principal plane upon which variation and development take place (subjectivism). Knowledge of the reality must be concrete and descriptive hermeneutic, It will avoid the search for universal natural laws, and it will recognize itself as an historical occurrence. Also subjectivism for Hobbes means obligations in individuality.
Hobbes supposes that Irrationality can be predicated in the first instance of human beings and of human beliefs and actions. Absence of rationality is taken to warrant a diminution of legal ...Show more

Summary

Thomas Hobbes is an English philosopher, whose political thought rested on the philosophical tradition of sixteenth century and on orthodox theories, but he went beyond the limitations of these theories (skeptical relativism).
Hobbes supposes that what humans needed is order, and that to achieve it they must renounce the useless liberty of the state of nature…
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Hobbes (15 88-1679) on the right to all essay example
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