The majority sociological explorations of mass culture, especially those undertaken within a Marxist or critical theory standpoint, tend to be restricted in their cultural and political postulations. This cultural elitism also rests upon a position of high culture, needing discipline and simplicity which can only be acquired by the professional rational through years of withdrawal from everyday labor and daily realities. More significantly, an elitist criticism of mass culture presumes, not only the peculiarity between low and high culture, but also the accessibility of some general or complete values from which a position of critique can be sustained.
Subsequent Alasdair MacIntyre's reasonably influential study After Virtue (1981), argue that a rational system of values as the base of criticism presupposes a comparatively coherent community as the fundamental social fabric of moral systems and ethical point of view. As in contemporary society the primary communal realism of values has been devastated, there can be no clear position of hierarchical values so as to found a critique of mass culture. In any case, the significance of postmodern cultural pluralism is to weaken the basis for the privileged asserts high culture to be the standard of aesthetic preeminence. ...Show more