The defining attributes are extracted from the review of literature and defining attributes of the concepts are substantiated by antecedences and consequences. Dyson et al (1996) suggest that the vital part of “holistic nursing care” is to meet the spiritual needs of the patient. Mostly the assessment is the victim of the inappropriate conceptual frameworks and spirituality is understood as synonymous with religion. Dyson et al (1996). Whereas, the literature review reveals that hope, belief and relatedness got vital meanings for spirituality. It is actually the understanding of the individual’s concept of highest value of life. There has been no consensus on the meaning of spirituality and the concept of spirituality has often been confused with its religious connotations. The present day use of the word spirituality is at times vague and it is difficult to define it. This word is now detached from its religious connotations. In today’s vocabulary it may refer to “the deepest values and meanings by which people seek to live.” Since it reflects the subjective turn of the present Western culture, so, it now mainly focuses on “some kind of inwardness. It is also worth noting that this word has now all pervasive meanings for the modern world. It does not confine itself with the individualistic quest of meanings rather this word has its public values or in other words it is the transformation of social structure. Now we have the reference of spirituality in health care, education and more recently in "the re-enactment of cities and urban life."(Sheldrake, 2007). The literature confirms that now hospitalization can become a "spiritual encounter" for the families and patients both. (Bolmsjo, (2000), [see Aging, spirituality and palliative care by Elizabeth MacKinlay(2006)]. Many authors have consensus that spirituality is not a religious practice rather religious practice may be the "expression of spirituality." (Smith & McSherry, (2004) [see Aging, spirituality and palliative care by Elizabeth MacKinlay(2006)].
Nurses are now expected to "engage in spiritual care with their patients." The modern day understanding of spiritual nursing can be grasped by three approaches, namely, religious approach, scientific approach and the existential approach. (Sawatzky & Pesut, 2005). Spirituality is helpful for mental illness also. The concept of integration of spirituality and psychology is becoming popular. As therapist are aware of the importance of spirituality regarding mental health now. But most of the therapists are confusing their effective role of providing spiritual care to their patients by the misnomer that if therapist is a religious person he/she can be of much help for the patients. The concept of spirituality has become a complex and diverse phenomenon and it should not be confused with the spiritual values of Christianity only. (Cox, Ervin-Cox, Hoffman, 2005). Actually, the psychoanalytic theories can not ignore the inherently moral dimensions of good life. The "analysts can mind their patient's 'spirituality' by offering husbandry or cultivation," and to do so one does not need to be any more religious or spiritual than one is already. (Sorenson, 2004)
Yoga, transcendental meditation and prayers are to enhance the spiritual and physical well being of the person. Among regular practitioners of the above mentioned mantras it is observed that their anxiety and depression is lowered. (Ekanayake, 2001). Andrew Newberg and Eugene d' Aquili; neurobiologists, in their research suggest that 'religion is intimately woven with human biology.' (see Ekanayaka, 2001). According to Newberg