Pre-modern and Modern Political Philosophy

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Pre-modern and Modern Political Philosophy Introduction The State should serve in the name of the interests of its citizens. This is the most important claim that occurred to me in the process of political philosophy studying. Nevertheless, different philosophers from pre-modern (Locke and Hobbes) and modern (Hegel and Marx) periods of political philosophy have positioned their philosophical views on the matter of government development in a different manner.


Pre-Modern period: Locke and Hobbes Locke and Hobbes are representatives of “state of nature” political philosophy. On the one hand, “state of nature” is rather dangerous for the society. There is a lack of security for the society and in spite of the fact that people honor each other and keep their promises and the atmosphere is friendly and pleasant, violent conflicts may occur. Hobbes underlines an obligatory subjection of people to ever existent hazards and violence and no society may exist on the background of unsafe conditions for individual’s existence. Both, Locke and Hobbes underline that the evolution from the state of nature to the civil society does not disturb human nature. Moreover, they claim that when an individual transits from the nature of state to civil society he is improved for sure. Basically, their views of state of nature were different: for Locke state of nature is a peaceful place and for Hobbes it implies brutality, a place for violence. Therefore, these phlosophers use theoretical tool of “state of nature” in two different ways: for Hobbes, “a common Power” is required for people to provide them with safety conditions for existence and avoid conditions of “Warre” (Hobbes, p. 75). ...
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