Although this is an extremely simplistic way of looking at the problem of punishment the fact is that over the centuries no-one has found an effective balance between the two ideals and that could be one of the reasons for our ever growing prison populations. Punishment At present the ideology in terms of punishment in American society at least, is retributive. This stemmed from a mid 20th century debate between the merits of rehabilitation and a form of fixed sentences that was uniform (and therefore fair) and applied to everybody. The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 and subsequent political acts took care of that and has been adhered through to present day. The philosophy behind this legislation is that rehabilitation is not effective for all individuals and therefore society needs to be protected from individuals who do wrong (against others or property) with the best way of doing that perceived as being incarceration or incapacitation (Zimring). One of the main issues in determining ethical ways of dealing with wrongdoers is that there needs to be an established set of roles and definitions that work within society to provide a system that all potential criminals are subject to. Rawls for example noted that defining punishment was not the same as justifying punishment; Justifying the use of prisons should be separate from any act of punishment (committing a person to such place); and that the practice of punishment must be justified through either forward thinking (consequentiality), or backward thinking (deontological). Based on his (and others) ideas it is generally agreed now that while the act of punishment might be the cause of some debate in terms of harshness and appropriateness, the justification for punishment is assumed. Secondly, that the justification for punishment comes from both consequential and deontological considerations. There are a number of reasons why punishment needs to be justified. Firstly punishment is a man-made action – it is not a natural fact and does not exist outside of the human experience. Therefore the rules that govern such action (human on human) are ones that should be considered ideal within society. Punishment as such is something that we as a human society decide to have and maintain within our society – it is a choice and as such could be done without. Although this is not likely to happen it has been proposed by the likes of Skinner in 1948 and Davis in 2003. One of the problems about punishment is the determination of whether or not the acts or depravations inflicted on the perceived wrongdoer are completed by an authoritative body, or by a sadist. The potential for an abuse of the power to inflict harm on another with impunity – indeed one that is actually sanctioned by society at the time cannot be ignored (Bedau). By their very nature punishments are severe, and one of the key issues still being debated today is what constitutes a cruel or inhumane act – where does the authoritative body draw the line especially for when the person being punished has committed acts that society find so distressing. Rehabilitation When it comes to rehabilitation most theories consider three basic ideas: 1. that the intervention is intentional and necessary; 2. that the method of rehabilitation relates directly to what is perceived to be the causal element of the offence in the offender and 3. that the proposed intervention will make it less likely for an individual to reoffend (Cullen and Gendreau). Unfortunately
Although this is an extremely simplistic way of looking at the problem of punishment the fact is that over the centuries no-one has found an effective balance between the two ideals and that could be one of the reasons for our ever growing prison populations. …
Diversity is another essential consideration to the accounts department that consists of personnel from different social and geographical backgrounds. Differences from the diversities are significant for consideration as they have both advantages and disadvantages.
The rehabilitation institute then came under the leadership of Dr Henry Bate who advanced the medical mission of the institute concerning creating RIC's Flagship Hospital and creating a research institute, as well as providing education and advocacy for people suffering from disabilities (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, n.d.
The main problem is that the fact of being imprisoned casts the shadow of social stigma of ex-convicts and, usually, employers would not be interested in hiring them. This situation forces them to look for alternative sources of income and they end up relying on criminal activities for income and this entails recidivism.
This paper explores rehabilitation from drugs and alcohol dependence and physical rehabilitation as it pertains, for instance, to the rehabilitation of soldiers returning from war who have been injured emotionally and physically. This paper posits that the success of rehabilitation treatments owes partly to the general attitudes that the patients bring to the rehab program, how dedicated and how willing they are to go through the treatments.
And the history of school, work, counseling, and family programs in prisons does not inspire confidence: while programs of these sorts are not uncommon in prisons, they are difficult to evaluate, often operated haphazardly, and plagued by skepticism about whether 'rehabilitation' actually 'works.'
on has been transformed from constituting a cause for enforcing a promise to a technical dogma that has minimal or no bearing on either the fairness of or advantage in carrying out an assurance, or acknowledging a commitment. Consequently, there exists the possibility of
In this paper, researcher is challenged to explore the correlation of medical profession with ethical concerns viz-a-viz issues relating to chemical castration to capital punishment. While the American Medical
s, including the master bedroom. The challenges I am facing in my current home include the awkward navigation of steps and impaired general mobility through the house. Uncoordinated movements and unsteady gait are also some of the symptoms affecting my mobility.
y, life is difficult for the citizens and so is the provision of local government services, secure housing, administration finance, public schooling, and financial development. The four main ways of dealing with crime include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence,
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