His metaphysics speaks about his insight on theory of knowledge. He says that there are two worlds namely a world of opinion and world of permanence also called a world of true knowledge. He says that knowledge is possible through reason. True knowledge means reason elevated to the level of consciousness. Plato argues in the Meno that knowledge is innate. An illiterate slave-person is able to demonstrate knowledge of geometry and arithmetic. What is latent is simply invoked by teaching. Answer 2. Descartes methods of finding true knowledge stress emphasis on creating methodological doubt and practicing radical skepticism. He talks about several steps to discover the true knowledge. First of all, as he describes, a person has to be totally free from preconceived notions and opinions. A conscious effort is required that mind does not collaborate with the sense faculties otherwise the process to find the truth may get derailed. To create all doubts in its core and then thrash them is a way towards solid foundation to attain true knowledge. Descartes proposes three arguments- perceptual argument, dream argument and the evil genius argument. Our most beliefs come from external senses. But it is a common experience for all of us that these external senses have deceived us in several occasions. In a perceptual argument he says that learning through five senses could be deceitful. In a dream argument he says that dream can never discover true knowledge. In an evil genius argument, he argues that an evil genius is always out to deceive us about everything and our beliefs such as sky, the earth, air, sounds or shapes that we see or feel in our daily life. However, he is sure about his existence regardless of whether he believes or does not believe; or he is being deceived or not being deceived. The cogito argument reflects that he exists separate from mind and matter and that is the basis for his search of the self, a true knowledge. Answer 3. Plato’s and Descartes’ methods both stress on non-dualist theories to find the true knowledge; however, Plato’s methods revolve around soul-body dualism and Descartes methods progresses through mind-body dualism. Plato accepts the assumption that the soul is identical with what forms the body. Descartes has rejected this idea completely. Both of them recognizes the self, the I. Descartes clearly distinguishes soul with mind. For him soul is the one which animates the body. For him mind thinks but does not contribute in any corporeal system. Descartes come to the conclusion that body and mind are separate from each other while for Plato soul's thinking faculty goes best when it is dissociated from the body. For Plato, soul is a driving force to create and maintain the life the way it desires. Moreover, Plato does not feel necessary to get doused with skepticism or doubting-all phenomenon to arrive at the true knowledge unlike Descartes who starts with the premise of doubt-in- all to reach at the true knowledge. Answer 4 Mankind has gained a lot through platonic epistemology. There are several things that can be gained from Plato’s insights and ideas. 1. The first and foremost idea that discerns Plato from others is that knowledge is nothing but recalling ideas as that
Philosophy Answer 1 Plato never claims having grasped absolute truth for himself; however, his metaphysical ideas are worth contemplating. Inspired from his teacher Socrates, his work is great and touches many parts of human life. The doctrine of recollection states that the knowledge is not acquired through any senses or through the interactions of mind but it is gathered through recollection of realities in this life and previous lives…
It is well known that Greek philosopher Socrates was given a death sentence on the charge of corrupting youth with his teachings. He was given a dose of hemlock, a toxic substance that causes suffocation leading to death.
Each and every philosopher has started his philosophical exploration and experiences from Plato’s ideas. Besides, his ideas are not simply a beginning of philosophic development, but a starting point of the ongoing philosophic dispute which started many centuries ago.
More technically put, virtues are the deeds that compose ethics. Ethics in the society are composed of these virtues. Moreover, the non-virtues in the society are vices, which constitute crime that are curbed through legal means that compose justice. Therefore, justice in the society tries to safeguard the virtues that compose ethics.
He argues that this doctrine is one that is characterized by one major enduring within the possession of humanity (Cooper 1). According to his findings, the horizon of life is bound by things that human beings see, touchy and handle. In addition, this horizon becomes indefinitely enlarged through the addition of a different type of human being, the type of timeliness, and abstract reality.
The view of the theory is that, in the case where a person believes in a given proposition (p), then they can know that the proposition (p) is true; only in the case that the proposition in question is truthful; the subject holds the belief that the proposal is truthful, and that the subject (S) can use a justification or offer a justification that their belief in the proposal (p) is true (Schaffer 73-75).
However, believing something does not amount to knowing something because as Audi states, a belief that is untrue is not knowledge (n.p.). On the other hand, a belief that results from a lucky guess also does not amount to knowledge regardless of the fact that it might be true (Audi n.p.).
In order to examine Aberland, Heloise, the letters and finding the true career it is first important to know more about all of them. Aberland was a dialectician, philosopher, and theologian, born 1079; died 1142. Peter Abelard was born in the little village of Pallet, about ten miles east of Nantes in Brittany.
According to Soccio (126), this philosopher believed that he could identify and articulate the difference between opinion and genuine knowledge by developing a theory of knowledge. The theory of knowledge developed by Plato states that all knowledge is innate and could be
y scholars have tried to delve on the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how knowledge contribute towards notions such as beliefs, truths, and justification (BonJour pp. 4).
Arguably, epistemology can be defined as the philosophical study of knowledge and
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