StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Comparison of the Scientific Philosophies of Kuhn, Duhen and Lauden - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
Comparison of the Scientific Philosophies of Kuhn, Duhen and Lauden

Therefore, his philosophy will be examined first. Duhem posits that “hypotheses are not straightforwardly refuted by experiment and that there are no crucial experiments in science.” (Wikipedia, 10/19/11) This means that a hypothesis cannot be directly disproved by being part of an experiment. There are several possible reasons which support this theory. First, Duhem works on the presumption that experiments are conducted by humans, who are fallible. Therefore, the results they produce will not be perfect. This means that experiments in science are inherently flawed, which devalues the results of said experiments. Duhem would go on to set the stage for the theories of Kuhn and Lauden, because Duhem presents the idea that hypothesis, experiment, and fact are not inextricably linked. Kuhn and Lauden dig deeper to consider the reasons why. Thomas Kuhn makes the point that “science has included bodies of belief quite incompatible with the ones we hold today.” (Kuhn, 238) The premise here is that one generation’s science is another generation’s bunk. Certainly, history is full of examples of past beliefs which have fallen out of fashion with the advent of scientific knowledge and the technology which helps to uncover it. For example, scientific beliefs since the time of the Egyptians have changed irrevocably over the centuries, but Kuhn’s point is that at the time those discoveries were made, they were the newest (and therefore most valid) sources of scientific information. Kuhn further posits that what scientists and scientific historians should be concerning themselves with is to “ask new sorts of questions and to trace different, and often less than cumulative, developmental lines for the sciences. Rather than seeking the permanent contributions of an older science to our present vantage, they [should] attempt to display the historical integrity of that science in its own time.” (Kuhn, 238) By contrast, Larry Laudan challenges us to re-consider the entire purpose of science. He believes it is “to ask…whether science through time brings us closer to achieving our cognitive aims or goals.” (Laudan, 145) Does scientific knowledge bring us closer to those? Laudan presents a valuable point, which is that “principals of testing, comparison, and evaluation of theories seem to vary significantly from level to level.” (Laudan, 144) This seems to say that there are a number of variables present which cannot be reconciled from level to level or from scientist to scientist. These variables can manifest themselves as simply as the fact that all people interpret results slightly differently. Take, for example, a doctor who views a patient’s X-ray on which there is evidence of carcinoma. A general practitioner would have a different interpretation of this than would a pulmonary specialist. They both see cancer, but only the pulmonary physician can properly assess which treatments would be most appropriate in attempting to eradicate the cancer. Now, suppose the patient can only afford to see his general practitioner because that is all his insurance will pay for – he never gets to see the lung specialist, and is relying entirely on the scientific opinion of only one scientist to assess his chances of survival. This is only one example of the flaw in scientific method: suppose the pulmonary physician was more well-read on the latest techniques of eradicating lung carcinoma, and the general ...Show more


Name Class Teacher Date Comparison of the scientific philosophies of Kuhn, Duhem and Lauden Thomas Kuhn, Pierre Duhem, and Larry Lauden each contributed valuable information regarding the philosophy of science and the issues which beleaguer it. Foremost for all of them was the question: How can scientific process be more accurate?…
Author : knienow
Comparison of the Scientific Philosophies of Kuhn, Duhen and Lauden
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Comparison of the Scientific Philosophies of Kuhn, Duhen and Lauden"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Thomas Kuhn`s Pradigm theory
A paradigm is described as a pattern or model, and a paradigm shift occurs when there are changes in the old paradigm, bringing in a new paradigm. Kuhn states that the evolution of paradigms in scientific disciplines occurs in patterns or cycles, beginning with a prescience period.
11 pages (2750 words) Essay
Today the two major paradigms of research are quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative research is rooted in the notion of positivism that contends a clear and definable reality exists that can be measured through quantifiable means (Giddens 1974).
12 pages (3000 words) Essay
Charles Darwin's Work according to Popper, Kuhn and Van Fraassen
Charles Darwin's work According to Popper, Kuhn, and Van. The philosophical work of Charles Darwin has attracted criticism from other philosophers that have supported or faulted his arguments. Darwin views tried to account for various evolution activities as well as the social nature of human beings.
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
Running Header: Scientific and Human Resource Management Approach Comparison
Taylor's theory argued that due to most work being routine it should be standardized and through measurement systems workers should be rewarded or punished, depending on their performance. As the industry evolved and workers became more unionized, demanding more humane working practices, organizations start to realize that attention should be given to the capabilities of individuals, and that the organizations success are directly related to the success of its employees.
9 pages (2250 words) Essay
Philosophy: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn
But with the development of additional research, many earlier conclusions are being questioned. Kuhn is of the view that science is based upon the assumption that the scientific community knows what the world is like and is also prepared to defend those assumptions.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
The Structure of Scientific Revolution (Kuhn) and Varieties of Religious Experience: (James): An Analytical Review
Kuhn places special emphasis on what factors actually contributed to a discovery, in this book, rather than discussing the discoveries per se; he believed that no
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Under normal conditions the research scientist is not an innovator but a solver of puzzles, and the puzzles upon which he concentrates are just those which he believes can be both stated and solved within the existing scientific tradition (Kuhn 1977
Or is it something like a convenient tool used by politicians to usher their political interests in the name of service/grant to society? This term has transcended all walks of life. Labour management too talks of Taylorism, which in effect separates
8 pages (2000 words) Essay
Thomas Kuhn The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Stage two details the process of normal science comprising processes directed by, and essential for, maintaining scientific paradigms. Scientific revolutions are in direct conflict with normal science and emanate from some crisis amid the scientific field. The
3 pages (750 words) Essay
A comparison between western and east Asian philosophies
To begin, let us consider the prevailing East Asian mindset that typically goes into the consideration of areas of law and justice. It should be noted that East Asian thought typically includes a wide range of traditional philosophies combining a mix of Japanese, Korean, and Chi-nese ideas that span more than 2,500 years of history (Moody 166).
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
A comparison of Depression in Adults from a natural scientific approach and a Humanistic science approach
Major forms of depression include major depression, dysthymic disorder, Psychotic depression, Bipolar disorder, bipolar depression and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Major depression can prevent the patient from functioning normally; it undermine
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Let us find you another Essay on topic Comparison of the Scientific Philosophies of Kuhn, Duhen and Lauden for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
Join us:
Contact Us