1.) Reading Comprehension a.) Describe how truth is to be determined for the following types of claims: SEMANTIC, SYSTEMIC, LOGICAL The idea of truth varies from the different forms of knowledge presented in different ways. Truth can be determined through semantics since semantics make up the meanings contained within the terms of languages, or the propositions articulated through expressions…
Empirical form of knowledge can determine truth based on the actual experience of an individual through events or things that happen around the environment. b.) EMPIRICAL claims there are the four different theories concerning the determination of the truth of empirical claims: Correspondence theory of truth Coherence theory Pragmatist theory Scientific Theory Describe each of these four theories for proving empirical claims to be true. Explain each one. Do not simply list them. Describe them and explain them. This will take more than one sentence for each one. Correspondence theory is an empirical theory of truth that was espoused by Aristotle that holds that truth is what propositions are consequent to a way things in the world are. In other words, this theory claims that a proposition is true as long as there are present and existing facts that correspond to it. Coherence theory accounts for a proposition’s truth that occurs from an association between that proposition and another proposition. In that way, coherence theory will assert that a proposition is true if it fits together and coheres with any other related proposition. Pragmatic theory holds that a proposition is true if it is practical to accept as true. This concept of truth was formed by the American Pragmatic philosophers such as C.S Peirce, William James and John Dewey who believed that the mark of truth is based on its practical utility above anything else. Beliefs that result to the best outcomes, are justified best from actions, that advance practical achievement, are held as truths. Scientific truth hold that knowledge can only be sought ascertained through various scientific methods or operations that can lessen the chances of uncertainty since it is generally held by scientists that truth at best can is only approximate and never absolute. For the scientific theory, the method on reaching a close-to-certain result is just as important as the outcome itself. For if a method is based on opinion alone, it would be considered nothing more than just subjective bias. 2.) Critical Thinking c.) What do you think of the theory that there can be simultaneous multiple truths concerning claims? Concerning all types of claims? Does it apply to claims that are semantic, systemic, logical or empirical? Comment on each type. Can there be multiple truths for each type of claim? For any type of claim? Please indicate your familiarity with the readings in your answer -this means use some quotations to support your answers. Subjectivism and Relativism would claim that there are various points of views regarding a certain truth. The reason due to this is because there are different situations and circumstances that happen that are sometimes overlooked, whether intentionally or unintentionally, by the objective forms of knowledge. This could also apply to semantic, systemic, logical and empirical forms of knowledge. Semantic knowledge is knowledge that is the result of learning the meaning of words which the knowledge of words is knowledge of definitions, and such definitions are set in dictionaries (Pecorino, “An Introduction to Philosophy”). It should be taken into consideration that there are various languages around the world, and each language has their own rules or way of inferring ...
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The term epistemology was first introduced in philosophy by a Scottish philosopher, James Frederick Ferrier. Philosophers, through epistemology attempt to answer the philosophical question “How do I know what I know?” by examining the various ways through which knowledge can be acquired and the extent to which human beings can know about certain entities or subjects.
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Much of the debate
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, Descartes had other ideas about Galileo’s scientific with the main objective being to the development of advanced philosophy acceptable by Christians and in line with their beliefs and understandings (Cunning, 1). Significantly, for this to succeed, Descartes would mediate
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