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Freedom and Determinism Problem
Pages 6 (1506 words)
I. 1. Determinism Determinism is a metaphysical theory that all events (a category that subsumes the subcategory of human events and actions) are subjected to causes external to the willful choices of human beings. This idea is similar to the idea in physics that cause-and-effect occurs for every phenomenon in the known universe.
One should distinguish between the idea that events in the universe are linked causally and the idea that events in the universe are linked correlatively. In the first view, exemplified by Newtonian physics, is that the trajectories of billiard balls are determined by their interactions (using factors such as velocity, momentum, and so on). In the second view, certain events are correlatively linked to others, leading to the perception of a causal relationship. 2. Libertarianism Metaphysical libertarianism is the contrary position to determinism, holding that a human free will does exist and that free will is incompatible with determinism. A completely free will implies that no external events act upon or causally determine the chosen actions of human beings. In other words, a person is able to take any of a set of actions under particular circumstances; that is, his choice is not limited to only one possible choice, as is claimed by determinism. One should distinguish between the idea that libertarianism applies to non-physical objects and physical objects. In the first view, the mind is a non-physical entity outside of physical causation and does not rely on the brain for causative explanations. In the second view, libertarianism implies indeterminism in the physical world (invoking ideas of newer quantum physics), which extends to the physical mind. 3. ...
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