To him, it is essential to clarify: first, if there is an external physical world, or is the world known merely an orderly combination of concepts and ideas; and secondly, the quality of knowledge held about the physical object.
In this paper, we aim to provide a concise exploration of Russell’s ideas about reality and perception by going through his process of knowing, and the issues surrounding the authenticity of human awareness. Then, we assess his ideas by evaluating the strength of its logic from the metaphysical point-of-view.
The self is able to connect with the external world through the senses. Knowledge, in this regard, starts with the experience of a physical object through seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or touching. What is obtained about the object is called sense-data, and what allows for the capturing of these data is called sensation. For example, in the self’s experience of an apple, its redness and smoothness are regarded to be the sense-data which are captured through sensation—by seeing and touching.
Through this thinking, it can be further said that the mere presence of the physical object in the external world allows for the emergence of these sense-data, for if there is no apple to begin with, there would not be any redness or smoothness identified.
Therefore, the process of knowing clearly distinguishes perception and reality. In the context of seeing and touching an apple, what appears to be the apple and its features are clearly separate from what the real apple is and its features.
Building on the previous discussion, it can be said that the fundamental differences between perception and reality have led to the development of two critical issues: (1) the questioning of reality; and (2) the questioning of the truths obtained about the physical object. In expounding on these issues, we intend to establish, first