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Virtue In Ancient Philosophy - Essay Example

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For example, human beings acquire virtue obeying the law and living to the expectation of societal norms and values. Human beings admire acquired virtues over natural virtues depending on the circumstances they find themselves in. For example, some people practices sobriety to live well with others, with the same objective, they teach their children good principles. 2. What, for Plato, are the virtues of wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice? Do you agree with Plato that those people with wisdom (derived from knowledge of the idea of good) should rule society? If so, then must we give up democracy? If not, then how can democracy possibly work well? Plato depicted wisdom as understanding, justice brought harmony, and courage is nonphysical, temperance as moderation. These three virtues according to Plato aim at bringing happiness to individuals and societies. Therefore, he advocated for use of persuasion rather than coercion. Only leaders with wisdom should rule society because they are in a better position to know their subjects and understand their tribulations. Democracy may perpetuate corruption, which may lead to unhappiness because the chosen leaders may not have better knowledge of our problems and us. 3. How does Aristotle distinguish between moral and intellectual virtues? What are the two kinds of intellectual virtue? How does the mean play a role in making choices that help the cultivation of moral virtues? According to Aristotle, there are two kinds of virtue: moral and intellectual virtue. Moral virtues are not innate according to Aristotle but they are acquired. For instance, an individual becomes trustworthy by acting truthfully. Examples of moral virtues are humility, truthfulness, moderation, and generosity. On the other hand, intellectual virtues are those personality traits that are required for correct thinking and desired action. He classified intellectual virtues as productive such as craft knowledge, theoretical such as wisdom and mind and lastly practical such as practical prudence. Happiness is the central core of living, which depends entirely on cultivation of virtues. According to Aristotle, playing the mean is the way of cultivating virtues that includes moral virtues for the attainment of individual happiness. Playing the mean is the virtue between two extreme excesses and deficiency. For instance, exercising the act of justice in getting too little or getting too much. Therefore, human beings make choices depending on the circumstances that surround them by choosing on one option and neglecting the other. 4. What is Aristotle’s practical syllogism? Do you ever make moral decisions in a way that would seem to conform to the practical syllogism? If so, what would be some examples? If not, how do you arrive at moral decisions? Practical syllogism is a way of reasoning in syllogistic manner, the summary of which is a certain action. Sometimes I make moral decisions that conformed practical syllogism in that I choose to care for my friends and I do not remain indifferent towards their mistakes. Part B 1. Explain the author's (Holmes) conception of the natural law tradition. (p.84-85) According to Holmes, natural law has external existence and objectives. It follows the nature of world and man in that as human beings we have the right to defend what we ...Show more
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Summary

Your name Instructor Virtues in ancient philosophy Part A 1. List some natural and acquired virtues. Do we admire one kind more than the other does? Should we? Virtues are dispositions that grow out of the nature of man. Man possesses the feeling for the good of reason and knowledge of first principles, which are natural to the intellect and will of all human beings…
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