Your name Instructor Virtues in ancient philosophy Part A 1. List some natural and acquired virtues. Do we admire one kind more than the other does? Should we? Virtues are dispositions that grow out of the nature of man. Man possesses the feeling for the good of reason and knowledge of first principles, which are natural to the intellect and will of all human beings…
For example, human beings acquire virtue obeying the law and living to the expectation of societal norms and values. Human beings admire acquired virtues over natural virtues depending on the circumstances they find themselves in. For example, some people practices sobriety to live well with others, with the same objective, they teach their children good principles. 2. What, for Plato, are the virtues of wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice? Do you agree with Plato that those people with wisdom (derived from knowledge of the idea of good) should rule society? If so, then must we give up democracy? If not, then how can democracy possibly work well? Plato depicted wisdom as understanding, justice brought harmony, and courage is nonphysical, temperance as moderation. These three virtues according to Plato aim at bringing happiness to individuals and societies. Therefore, he advocated for use of persuasion rather than coercion. Only leaders with wisdom should rule society because they are in a better position to know their subjects and understand their tribulations. Democracy may perpetuate corruption, which may lead to unhappiness because the chosen leaders may not have better knowledge of our problems and us. 3. How does Aristotle distinguish between moral and intellectual virtues? What are the two kinds of intellectual virtue? How does the mean play a role in making choices that help the cultivation of moral virtues? According to Aristotle, there are two kinds of virtue: moral and intellectual virtue. Moral virtues are not innate according to Aristotle but they are acquired. For instance, an individual becomes trustworthy by acting truthfully. Examples of moral virtues are humility, truthfulness, moderation, and generosity. On the other hand, intellectual virtues are those personality traits that are required for correct thinking and desired action. He classified intellectual virtues as productive such as craft knowledge, theoretical such as wisdom and mind and lastly practical such as practical prudence. Happiness is the central core of living, which depends entirely on cultivation of virtues. According to Aristotle, playing the mean is the way of cultivating virtues that includes moral virtues for the attainment of individual happiness. Playing the mean is the virtue between two extreme excesses and deficiency. For instance, exercising the act of justice in getting too little or getting too much. Therefore, human beings make choices depending on the circumstances that surround them by choosing on one option and neglecting the other. 4. What is Aristotle’s practical syllogism? Do you ever make moral decisions in a way that would seem to conform to the practical syllogism? If so, what would be some examples? If not, how do you arrive at moral decisions? Practical syllogism is a way of reasoning in syllogistic manner, the summary of which is a certain action. Sometimes I make moral decisions that conformed practical syllogism in that I choose to care for my friends and I do not remain indifferent towards their mistakes. Part B 1. Explain the author's (Holmes) conception of the natural law tradition. (p.84-85) According to Holmes, natural law has external existence and objectives. It follows the nature of world and man in that as human beings we have the right to defend what we ...
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Nonetheless, Socrates was a well-known and contentious personality in ancient Greece. Socrates was a philosopher of ancient Greece who is acknowledged for establishing the basics of modern Western philosophy. Socrates has had a vast influence on ancient Greek or, generally, on Western philosophy, together with apprentices Plato and Aristotle.
Different philosophers at different times tried to define the concept. St. Augustine said that, as long as he was not asked to define the meaning of leisure, he knew what it was, but if asked about its meaning, then he could not definitely describe it (Toner 1995).
His views were so radical that his works merited listing on the Papal Index of Prohibited Books in the year 1559.2 However, the ideas presented by Machiavelli must have had a certain appeal because his works are now well-known and taught at all universities even if many readers may infer that they appear to suggest that only cream and SOBs rise to the top, something that is contrary to Christian thinking.
His student, Plato, has done most of his thoughts and ideas that have been put down in writing because there is no record of his thought ever being written down during his lifetime. Based on this, it is very difficult to distinguish between the thought that was of Socrates and what was Plato is because it can be suspected that Plato may have put some of his ideas into the mouth of Socrates to make them seem more credible to his audience due to Socrates’ reputation.
Then, explain how this doctrine might be related to his claim in the Apology that "the unexamined life is not worth living". Protagoras is a dialogue by Plato, the main characters being Socrates and Protagoras. In the dialogue, Socrates suggests that human excellence amounts to the possession of wisdom.
These kinds of theories under the virtue ethics lay little or no emphasis at all on the kinds of rules people opt to select in favor of the others. The theory focuses on helping people have great character traits that are accepted in the society. Such characters are the ones that help people to develop well in life with such traits as kindness, as well as generosity.
On the other hand, the Discourses presents a republic theory which itself is virtuous. Both books are in total contrast to each other.
The Price is though-provoking, captivating, short, easy, but also equally dangerous and "not virtuous" book. Here, Machiavelli provides recommendations for the princes about learning the policies for how not to be good or virtuous to their friends and colleagues so as to maintain absolute authority.
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ll focus on comparing the Confucius and Aristotle’s viewpoints on virtue, acceptable ethical character and conduct through demonstration of similarities and differences in specific ideas. Besides, the essay will consider the implications of the findings in understanding ancient Chinese and Greek cultures.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
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