By studying the four theories namely Social contract theory, utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics, one is able to understand the difference in the moral theories and the premises that they are founded on. Explain What Moral Goodness Is According To Social Contract Theory Social contract theory expresses that morality is a set of rules governing behavior that rational people would accept, on the condition that others would accept them as well. Political theorists have defined this as the primary base for the rise of political authority in many communities. Social contract theory is also how an act is classified as morally good or otherwise through consent from the people (Skyrms 59). Interpret What Social Contract Theory Would Imply For The Issue At Hand. The rights of the human cells can only be established or denied by the society. This is by the voting in of laws that may allow the rights of the human cells. This is made through consent of the people and this consent is what makes it right for a researcher to use the human embryos for research. This leads to the argument that the human embryo should be given a chance to life as opposed to the right to life. Explain What Moral Goodness Is According To Utilitarianism John mills the modern father of utilitarianism has explained that the moral goodness of the theory lies not solely in the pursuit of happiness but in the prevention and mitigation of unhappiness. Ultimately the moral goodness of an action is determined by the long-term effect tit will have on the actor and the people it will affect. An example of a situation where the utilitarian theory maybe employed would be in the cases of a doctor who has a patient in perfect health and considers killing him, since there are six other patients who would benefit greatly from his body organs. By employing the utilitarian theory, it suffices to say that since Patient A may never find the cure for AIDS. It therefore brings the ultimate pleasure to give six patients a happy life from patient A’s organs because this is the most pleasure attainable from the death of patient A. The pain caused is the least, as only one family shall be affected by his death. However, such an application of the theory may make people lose confidence in the health care system and health practitioners since they will be afraid of going for treatments for ailments they may have. This act of killing patient A therefore has a ripple effect of causing the death o of more people as they stay at home ill, with fear of being killed at the hospitals. Interpret What Utilitarianism Would Imply For The Issue At Hand. According to the utilitarian theory, the human cells have no rights especially if the findings gotten from the research serve to bring more pleasure through the further understanding of the genetic components of the human body. This pleasure may translate to better drugs for the human race or better prevention measures. Explain What Moral Goodness Is According To Deontology Moral goodness has been explained by deontologists as the choices made in conformity to a particular norm. According to the theory, which is mostly explained in contrast to consequentialism, the choice a person makes is judged by criteria unlike in consequentialism where the morality of a choice is judged on the state of affairs it brings about and if they are for the good of all other individuals. The deontology theories may be classified into two
Name Instructor Task Date Do Human Cells Have Rights? The issue of human cells having rights has come up in light of the medical progress that has led to the possibility of medical practitioners performing procedures that enable the fertilization of the embryos outside the human body…
Despite its priority in international human rights convention, empirical evidence suggests that the elimination of torture is far from complete (Nagan and Atkins 2001, p. 87). For instance a global survey conducted by Amnesty International (2000) reflects that at least 7% of countries practice torture despite ascension to the Torture Convention.
This is so because most such inventions are capable of both positive and negative outcomes depending on the way they are utilized. One among the most discussed inventions of the time is cloning. Recently, an Oregon Health and Science University team led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov successfully cloned a Rhesus Monkey and created stem cells.
He has also evaluated how several theories that have been presented can be used to violate animal rights, while the same theories can also be used to create the need for animal rights in the world. Tom Reagan has based the argument for animal rights on a number of cases starting with the need for rationalism.
However, humans often tend to make the most important decisions and adopt wrong notions without gaining detailed knowledge about something. What are embryonic stem cells and stem cell technology? In 1998, the stunning promise of embryonic stem cells was discovered, and it was thought that we just might be on the threshold of an age of miracles (Cobb,2013).“Physiological studies have shown that pluripotent stem cells or embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any kind of cell.
These researches and advancements, however, raise a lot of questions and controversies when it comes to ethics and code of principles, be it on the social, religious or any other behalf. Especially during and after the Second World War, when a lot of research in the field of biology and medicine was required and was going on, people started paying attention to the research processes and were concerned on the ethical grounds about it and thus emerged the field of Bioethics.
The moral issues involved in abortion, euthanasia, and animal rights are highly subjective and incendiary within today's society. The difficulty in discussing these issues is that considering whether the related actions are moral or immoral involves a valuation of life, which invariably, is not universal perceived by everyone.
It should be noted that production of electricity by thermal plants is not a very efficient method and is a major source of pollution. In such plants, the chemical energy (heat of combustion) of fossil fuels (coal, gas or
Consequently, when a stem cell divides, it has the capacity of becoming a different type cell. For example, it can became a brain cell, muscle cell or remain as a stem cell.
Stem cell is different from other cells in the
The author of the text comments on the peculiarities of fuel cells. Notably, all fuel cells contain an anode, the positive electrode, a cathode the negative electrode and an electrolyte-a liquid that allows charges to move between the two sides of the fuel cell. And this electrolyte has to be in liquid form to reduce hydrogen molecule leakage via the container’s walls.
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