Then, I will elucidate Mill’s response to Kantian theory, and the grounds of his philosophy. Finally, I will argue through example that we ought to favor Mill’s philosophy as it will maximize the benefit to society. Kant’s Theory on Morality In his moral philosophy, Kant argues that for law to have any moral force, it must contain absolute necessity. He opines that morality cannot exist without metaphysics also known as a set of necessary truths. When one fulfils one’s obligation to these necessary truths, the act performed will have morally right regardless of the repercussions it will have. The will to fulfill this obligation forms the basis of our decisions to engage or not to engage in certain acts and it can only become moral if one’s actions are because of rather than merely in accordance with the duty. This will determines what is good or bad because when the will is bad all the other aspects of an individual can be used to further immoral purposes. Kant’s argument is that moral requirements are founded on a certain standard of rationality which he named, Categorical Imperative. Immorality is therefore the violation of the Categorical Imperative and which is therefore irrational. These standards of rationality upon which moral requirements are based are either desire-based instrumental rationality principles or based on natural rational intuitions. But he also argued that conformity to this Categorical Imperative, a non-instrumental principle, hence conformity to moral requirements themselves is capable of being shown to be integral to rational agency. He based this argument on his remarkable doctrine that generally a rational will should be seen to be autonomous, or free such that it is the author of the law which seeks to bind it, (Kant, 1999). The basic principle of morality, the Categorical Imperative, is the law of a free or autonomous will. Kant’s moral philosophy is centered on a principle of reason, that an individual’s moral behavior is more than just being a slave to his passions. The presence of this natural and self-governing reason in everyone means that each individual is capable of making the right moral choices and becoming a respectable member of the society. Mills Moral Theory Mills philosophy of the greatest happiness principle tends to divert from Kant’s philosophy. According to Mill, the correctness of person’s actions is measured by its effect on other people. The ultimate end of a person’s actions should be aimed at bringing about the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people. This standard of the greatest happiness has been desired because it is assumed that most people desires for their own happiness for as long as they believe they can achieve that. Therefore, the greatest happiness is a sum of the greatest happiness of every individual. For Mill, happiness is achieved when there is no pain and there is pleasure both in quality and quantity. Since this pleasure is everyone’s goal, then it forms the basis of our morality. Mill explains how one is to distinguish what will result into more or less happiness by saying that if a person has experienced two pleasures, he will choose the one with a higher value. Higher pleasures are mostly related to intellect while lower pleasures are mostly physical. He also explained why some people will choose a lower pleasure over a higher one even when they have had experience with both. He said that even though this
Kant’s and Mill’s Philosophical Theories on Morality Name of student Course and code Course Instructor Name of Institute Kant’s and Mill’s Philosophical Theories on Morality Introduction Kant and Mill represent a battle on the origin of morality…
Kant also makes several arguments about lying, whether it is morally acceptable to lie. He argues that lying at all times and in all possible circumstances is always morally wrong. He says that all human beings have what is referred to as an intrinsic worth called human dignity. Human beings are rational being who are capable of making their own decisions and guarding their own conduct by the use of reason.
We look to the path as a way by which we make decisions in the resent and we rely on the teachings of our forefathers to help build a better world for us all.
Many analysts and political scientists have argued in the past that Plato and Aristotle and Machiavelli have divergent political views.
Among the most prolific early thinkers were Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Newton, Galileo and Boyle and Bentham. These thinkers were in part responsible for shaping the views of Kant in that he drew elements of their brand of moral philosophy to serve as focal points of criticism and facilitators of his metaphysical dualism.
Durkheim lived in the era where the French and American society had different philosophies and theories on education (Abbott 235). The French society intended to shape the students in order to meet society's needs while the American society used the laissez-faire approach to education.
Significantly, Kant’s philosophy is anchored in his conviction that the value of man is inbuilt in his ability to reason and his criticisms of utilitarianism have become well-known in the history of philosophy. An analysis of Kant’s ethics of duty and freedom as a response to all previous ethical theories proves the characteristics of the Kantian ethics and the most significant contrast to utilitarianism, according to Kant, is the ethics of duty in which normative judgments are made on the basis of the character of the action rather than its consequences.
hat "the whole way we look at moral issues- our moral conceptual scheme- needs to be altered, and with it, the way of life that has come to be taken for granted in our society." (Timmons 453-454) If Singer’s reasoning was used by everyone, issues like world hunger would
Immanuel Kant, a famous historical philosopher in the 18th and 19th century, proposed the ‘Categorical Imperative or Practical Imperative’ (Maj, 2002). In his ethical theory that takes on a deontological approach, Kant placed an emphasis on the “Good Will” of
He was very much interested mainly in the theoretic position and purpose of the thought of God. Therefore, he sought to understand the notion of God in a methodically well-ordered group of basic theoretical values
Aristotle was concerned with the ultimate goal of being happy and being able to live well within a community. One would also mention that one has to employ the power of reason in an effort to be morally right and to
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