Apology by Plato.
The four charges are as follows:
1) “Socrates speculated about the heaven above, and searched into the earth below” (Apology, 2). Socrates response: “I have nothing to do with these studies” (Apology, 3).
Socrates on page three denies practicing this type of philosophy, although he does not want to disrespect its practitioners.
2) “Socrates makes the worse argument into the stronger argument” (Apology,2). Socrates maintains that men of position who are examined by “young men of the richer classes” (6) who have learned his methods are humiliated. Their response is to slander Socrates: “Those who are examined by them [the young men] instead of being angry with themselves are angry with me. This confounded Socrates!…--and then if somebody asks them, why, what evil does he practice or teach? They do not know…” (6). In order to save face, these men accuse Socrates of sophistry.(6).
3) Socrates is guilty of corrupting the young. I will summarize Socrates’ examination of Meletus concerning this accusation: The laws improve the youth. All of the judges know the laws. Therefore, all the judges improve the youth. All Athenians improve the youth, according to Meletus. Socrates is an Athenian. But, according to Meletus, Socrates alone is their corrupter. This is an invalid argument. If all Athenians improve the youth, and Socrates is an Athenian, then he should also improve the youth. I understand the second argument as follows: It is better to live among good citizens, because they do good. Everyone wants to be treated well. Socrates corrupts the youth intentionally, turning them bad. Bad people do evil. ...