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Human Conduct and Value Final exam
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Student’s Name Instructor’s Name Course Name 11 December 2011 Human Conduct and Value Final Exam 1) Why does James Rachels believe we should be vegetarians? How is Mark Bittman’s argument different? Which moral theories inform each author’s argument?
Second, the treatment of animals that the United States uses for the food supply is predominately cruel and abusive (186-90). The methods of productions are justified as a means to an end and because they are “economical” (190). Rachels believes that the meat production industry uses Kant’s theory of “The Categorical Imperative”, that morality only applies to human beings, to justify their actions (187). However, Rachels’ argument supports Utilitarianism by spreading the protein across the world to even out consumption and deliver the greatest good for all. Mark Bittman’s argument focuses on the costs of meat production. Bittman measures the costs not only in terms of dollars, but also in terms of what mankind sacrifices in the process of producing the meat. He states that “these assembly-line meat factories consume enormous amounts of energy, pollute water supplies, generate significant greenhouse gases and require ever-increasing amounts of corn, soy, and other grains” (Bittman). Social Contract Theory informs Bittman’s argument. Everyone would need to agree to consume no or less meat in order for it to work. The basis of this act would be informing and creating an understanding of the challenges and by-products of meat production to allow people to make informed decisions about personal eating habits. ...
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