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Human Conduct and Value Final exam - Essay Example


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Human Conduct and Value Final exam

Second, the treatment of animals that the United States uses for the food supply is predominately cruel and abusive (186-90). The methods of productions are justified as a means to an end and because they are “economical” (190). Rachels believes that the meat production industry uses Kant’s theory of “The Categorical Imperative”, that morality only applies to human beings, to justify their actions (187). However, Rachels’ argument supports Utilitarianism by spreading the protein across the world to even out consumption and deliver the greatest good for all. Mark Bittman’s argument focuses on the costs of meat production. Bittman measures the costs not only in terms of dollars, but also in terms of what mankind sacrifices in the process of producing the meat. He states that “these assembly-line meat factories consume enormous amounts of energy, pollute water supplies, generate significant greenhouse gases and require ever-increasing amounts of corn, soy, and other grains” (Bittman). Social Contract Theory informs Bittman’s argument. Everyone would need to agree to consume no or less meat in order for it to work. The basis of this act would be informing and creating an understanding of the challenges and by-products of meat production to allow people to make informed decisions about personal eating habits. 2) Why does Don Marquis believe abortion is immoral? Don Marquis believes abortion is immoral because he defines it in terms of extreme and irreversible individual loss. He first asserts

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that the reason murder of an adult is wrong is because it “deprives one of all the experiences, activities, projects, and enjoyments that would otherwise have constituted one’s future” (110). Marquis indicates that if this is true for adults, than it must also be true for children and infants, “for we do presume that they have futures of value” (112). Marquis asserts that the reasoning which leads one to apply the logic to children and infants should lead one to include fetuses in the argument as well and that “it follows that abortion is prima facie seriously morally wrong” (113). 3) Why does Mary-Anne Warren believe abortion is morally acceptable? How does she define personhood? Mary-Anne Warren believes that abortion is morally acceptable because the rights of a woman who is a present, fully aware person outweigh “whatever right to life a fetus may have by virtue of its potential personhood” (105). Warren asserts that even a fully developed fetus does not meet the criteria of personhood, and that “neither a fetus’s resemblance to a person, nor its potential for becoming a person provides any basis whatever for the claim that it has any significant right to life” (105). Mary-Anne Warren defines personhood by five minimum criteria: 1) consciousness, including the ability to feel pain, 2) a developed ability to reason, 3) self-motivated activity, 4) a capacity and proclivity to communicate in a variety of ways, and 5) self-awareness (100). While Warren concurs that not all five must necessarily be met to determine personhood, she states “that any being which satisfies none of (1)-(5) is certainly not a person” (101). 4) Why is Garrett Hardin against helping the poor? What ethical concept from class does he use to make his argument? Garret Hardin is against helping the poor because he believes that doing so disrupts the natural order of life on earth. He asserts that withholding aid would allow the world’


11 December 2011 Human Conduct and Value Final Exam 1) Why does James Rachels believe we should be vegetarians? How is Mark Bittman’s argument different? Which moral theories inform each author’s argument?…
Author : rickgorczany
Human Conduct and Value Final exam essay example
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