This paper is going to focus on the cosmology or fundamental beliefs of each philosophy and the ethics developed, based on the cosmology and why and how the ethical basis are outlined to help a person to achieve his/her own personal perfection in the end. The paper will also deal with the first four philosophies because they form a fundamental part of the Asian religions; the Hindu, Buddhism, Shinto and Confucians.
The Upanishads was written in India in 8th to 6th century BCE (Kupperman 58). It contained answers to radical questions. They try to answer questions surrounding personal identity. Questions like who are we, what are we expected to do. They are regarded as highly serious philosophy. They developed a sophisticated world picture, which generates an ethic, the way the world would tell one the best way to live.
The Upanishads may be considered as religion and philosophy as well due to the fact that they offer the raw text of Hinduism especially on matters dealing with life and death (Kupperman 61). Indeed, they are seen as the foundation of some core traditional and value of India philosophies.
Religiously, they tend to offer an escape to tedious round of reincarnation. They promise in Moksha (a Spiritual state where one enters a point of liberation). One has an endless spiritual fulfillment after demise. To qualify for this “Moksha” state one must follow after joy rather than pleasure. This is the place it start being a philosophy, a part from religion (Kupperman 64).
The Upanishads teaches that, for one to determine the state of eternal life (either to live in the state of reincarnation or enter the state of liberation), one must observe the difference of life of joy or pleasure though certainly there are familiar words yet not easy to differentiate between the two. If any person would differentiate between the two words, that person will achieve personal identity and live a happy life pursuing joy rather than vaporous pleasures.