Name Instructor Course Date Mind-Body Problem The relation between the mind and the body is what is termed as mind-body problem. More specific this is the relation between the mind and the brain. Mind-body problem is also explained as the interaction between the mind and the body…
One research line states that some mind-body problems come from artificial intelligence research. One such problem can be solved by the clear knowledge hardware and software interaction and relationship. The other line of research shows that mind-body relation might be illuminated by the study of emergence in the biological systems. Mind-body dualism or dualism is a theory that holds that minds and brains both exist, and neither the mind nor the brain is part of each other. Both Hinduism and non-Advaitic Vedanta agree with mind-body dualism as when the soul moves through different incarnations, this then is something that can independently exist of the body. If Atman’s individuality is preserved by atman and Brahman fusion, then atman might exist independently without the being of human body. Pre-Socratic Pythagoras was the first western philosopher to agree with dualism. Ancient Egyptian doctrines (religious) that he inherited held that a nonphysical part of a human being survives death. He too believed that the soul reincarnates. Plato too was a mind-body dualist as in his dialogue The Phaedo, he concludes the soul survives after the death of the body. Aristotle was also a mind-body dualist. He supported the idea that the intellectual part of the soul lives forever. 1 Mind-body dualism is not subscribed to by Orthodox Christianity as they believe that human immortality is in the hope of bodily resurrection. They too believe in the life after death by the mercies of God. Augustine of Hippo introduced the soul as a strong metaphysical sense into Christianity in the fourth and fifth centuries. He believed that Platonism and Christianity were both mutually consistent and true, and therefore sought to merge them into one philosophical system. Rene Descartes a mathematician and a French philosopher of the seventeenth century argue in his mediation that he can be certain because of the fact that he exists. He argues that he cannot doubt his existence because if he does, he exists, but the truths of mathematics, evidence of the senses and physical world are absolutely dubitable. Basing on the above premises Descartes summarizes that he is a thing that thinks independent of the physical world including his own body. On the other hand Cartesian dualism views that each person a substantial soul that is different from the body. Thus the two basic dualism types include Descartes and Cartesian dualism.2 This is the theory that that asserts that the mind is the brain and nothing exists apart from the brain. The Greek atomist Democritus holds that there exist atoms and the void only. Atoms are material particles that are indivisible while the void is an empty space in which atoms move. Therefore if minds or mental states exist, it then means they can be reduced to atoms and incase atoms are physical automatically the minds are physical. This can be so only if atomism is true. Thomas Hobbes, an English political theorist cum philosopher and a founder of geometry asserts that unless geometry statements are true, no statement can be regarded true. Hobbes does not believe in dualism or in nonphysical realities. He argues that the mind is not straightforwardly a physical object therefore many people take it for a nonphysical object. Such criticisms by Hobbes about putative nonphysical realities were then adopted by the Vienna Circle in the 1930s whose intention was to replace the religion by science. U.T. Place a British philosopher in his paper of 1956, ‘ ...
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“The Mind/Body Problem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/philosophy/59036-the-mind-body-problem.
When we say that consciousness is a part of the mental, then several questions are raised such as what it takes for something to be conscious. Human beings are usually conscious when they are both awake and asleep. When people are conscious, they do experience conscious states which they choose to either remember or forget.
However, Descartes also admitted in his Meditations that somehow the mind and the body, despite their interdependence, happen to interact with each other and somehow this interaction results in a perceived unity: “…for in truth, I could never be separated from it or from other bodies: I felt in it and on account of it all my appetites and affections [and] I was affected in its parts by pain and the titillation of pleasure” (Descartes 1969:162).
Elizabeth and Descartes engaged in a correspondence from 1643 to 1949, and explored a variety of philosophical issues, among them the body-mind problem as well as the principles of geometry and mathematics, and ethics. Letter I: Elizabeth to Descartes, July 1646 This short letter begins with Elizabeth inviting Descartes to a meeting in the Hague, before she leaves for Berlin with her family.
Property Dualism: This view asserts that there is only one kind of substance -physical, but there are two kinds of properties-physical and mental, and that mental properties such as thoughts and emotions exist in some physical substance like the brain.
Ideas on mind/body dualism have been around for a long time, with great philosophers like Plato and Aristotle having views about a "soul" bearing intelligence and wisdom.
The movie depicts a future, whereby, most humans see reality as a simulated reality made by sentient machines to subdue and pacify population of humans (Spencer and Tani 07). Energy is produced by heat from their bodies and
Descartes also admitted in his Meditations that somehow the mind and the body, despite their interdependence, happen to interact with each other and somehow this interaction results in a perceived unity: “…for in truth, I could never be separated from it or from other
out the fundamental nature of existence, one that precludes the possibility of the mind and body being reduced to the same material (the contrary belief is known as monism). Considered together, these implications pose a problem as they relate to finding meaning in life. The
Descartes argues that the nature of the mind is completely different from that of the body this makes it possible for an individual to actively exist without an interaction of the entities. His argument has led to one of the most discussed problems in philosophical and other non-philosophical discourse, the problem of the body and the mind.
He emphasizes that language aspects too fall in the same line as one commonly understands phenomena such as electrical force, complex molecules, or visual systems. Thus, the author takes naturalistic approach for mental and