Philosophy as a discipline is the art of rationalizing. Rationalizing refers to the art of analyzing on an in depth the premises laid in front of an argument. Through thorough analysis reach out on wisely chosen conclusions and further more solve problems of the community. It needs one to be a critical thinker to be a good philosopher. Critical thinkers are at the highest level of thinking (Mill, 1965). It is the highest ranking of the mind, and they are at the Post-Conventional level of thinking. They do not conform and adhere to the established way of life. They do not just merely agree on the truth that they overhear, they do not just merely follow others on the basis of mass psychology. They dispel and disagree with the existing truth, they doubt all knowledge they had previously acquired, and they find other alternatives to existing problems. They find out new ways that have not been discovered. They believe that the existing knowledge is false and prone to object and totally dispel of certain myths (Rachels, 2010). They do not conform to societal perception; they are individuals who think above society. They are able to correct society. As critical thinkers, they are able to judge others and are generally able to bring new ideas into the society. ? Conventional thinkers on the other hand are conformists. They go by the society, easily believe and follow others. They are very prone to malice and take up any thing as gospel truth. They don’t make the best type of leaders and are generally
not adequate in the considerations for decisions or in the decision making process (Shaw, 1962). Definition of Knowledge: Knowledge from a philosophical point of view can be looked at as the art of making one’ self familiar with something or certain assumptions about life. These assumptions can include certain facts, information obtained from various sources, the various descriptive or descriptions about a certain aspect about life. Study of Knowledge according to the philosophers is generally referred to as epistemology. According to Plato a famous philosopher he identified knowledge as justified true belief (Tikhanov, 2009). Theories about Knowledge “Appearance and reality” by Bertrand Russell Bertrand Russell was a critical thinker, in fact, a philosopher who introduced the theory on Appearance and reality. This indeed was a theory the sought to put to test the validity of knowledge. Appearance and reality by Bertrand Russell had its take on philosophy with more emphasize on the contentious issue of knowledge (Wadia, 1996). Bertrand Russell’s By fact, he said that looks are very deceiving. And the knowledge we gain through site could be a subject of false. According to Bertrand Russell we gain knowledge through our various senses. The sense of touch, sight, smell and many others (Tikhanov, 2009). These signs give us some basis for acquisition of knowledge. Looking at a dirty person, the knowledge gained may be that the person is very poor but the reality may be the opposite. It is therefore on this background that the conclusion that looks are deceiving arises. It is true that what the appearance we get may be totally different from the reality established on the ground. It is therefore conscious to doubt every truth portrayed and doubt the existing myths, facts and beliefs about various issues in life (Shaw, 1962). According to Bertrand Russell Propaganda is a representation of messages containing a specific agenda.