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Truth - Essay Example

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However, diverse the topic of truth, a measure of its boundaries and applications is imperative but logically unattainable. Knowledge in philosophy denotes justified true belief. In trying to explain epistemology, philosophers developed different ideologies. The use of perception in relation to sense data to determine knowledge and, therefore, truth has yielded a lot of debate. For instance, direct realism holds that, the world consists of mind independent physical objects. Through perception, an individual is directly aware of the independent objects. Then comes the science that states, what we perceive as an object is but a reflection of light. Scientists justify their claim beyond a reasonable doubt, in which case the absence of light is equal to the inability to see the object. Perception is, however, not dependent on one sense for humans have an abundance of five. For instance, in the dark one can still hear when he bumps into the object, feel its texture and approximate its size (touch), taste the surface and take in its scent (smell). Indirect realism tries to distinguish objects that are physically real and objects perceived by the mind. Indirect realists achieve this by assuming that humans are indirectly aware of mind independent objects. Study of the human mind has revealed that there are states in which the mind cannot distinguish true perceptions from false perceptions. Such states include illusions, dreams and other phenomena such as hallucinations which are real to minds as if they were in normal states. These states, therefore, disclaim the validity of both direct and indirect realism. This, in summary, dictates that the minds interpretation of the light ergo the object and in extension truth is as far as the individual mind perceives. Idealism holds that all physical objects are nothing more than just a collection of sensory ideas. In light of this, idealist can contradictorily say that 1) we are perceptually aware of actual physical things, but 2) all experiences are experiences of mental representations. Justification and belief are not enough to make a premise true as mentioned earlier. This insufficiency results in the Gettier problem. Philosophers try to solve this problem for instance, some theorists suggest redefining reliability. Nonetheless, the state of the mind controls the senses in which case truth still relies on an individual’s perception, however, fallible. What then are universal truths? Are all human minds playing a universal trick? Truth is the relation between a thing, state of affairs and their supporting evidence. The statement made is as a result of thought and judgment which require logical constructs to determine, in which case appeal to logos is eminent. Many intellectuals see Correspondence theory as dependent on conforms of external reality, ergo, metaphysics. To justify a preposition P as there has to exist a balanced equation between the components of preposition A and intellect. The balance of this equation does not restrict to objects and facts hence can apply to feelings, emotion, and people just but a few. Correspondence theory can describe two approaches of truth namely object based and fact based. Object-based correspondence summarizes judgment (in relation to an object) as true only if associate predicates correspond to the object. Noted, two accounts in regard to predicate associations are pertinent a) forming a reference relation and b) forming a correspondence relation. In summary, believes hold true if corresponding facts remain valid and false when corresponding facts are void. The correspondence theory to a considerable extent is a defense for metaphysical realism. However, all knowledge has a foundation in which ...Show more
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Summary

How we are to think upon truth, is as diverse a topic as principles of biology or mathematics. I will examine this question in three approaches commencing from the debate of epistemology, a debate on literature and finally a look at the theory of correspondence in light of metaphysics and truth. …
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