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Descrates' Substance Dualism - Admission/Application Essay Example

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Descrates' Substance Dualism

The first manifestation is the dualism of body and soul in man. Two substances—mental and material—are completely separated from each other. Descartes, however, mentioned the pineal gland, in which they are connected, but this argument has no effect. In general, there is a gap between them. Mental substance has no spatial parameters, material substance has spatial parameters. Descartes rejects admission of the existence of the body; he speaks of the mental unenbodied substance, which exists in itself separated from the body. The second manifestation is the duality of God and world. This is a deistic position: God is the creator of the world. Having created the world as an extended substance, he gave it the laws of mechanics and the first impulse. God does not intervene in the affairs of the world. After that everything develops according to the laws of mechanics. In terms of dualism Descartes solved the fundamental question of philosophy – the dispute about the priority of matter or consciousness is meaningless. Matter and consciousness are united only in man, and since man is dualistic (combines two substances – the material and the spiritual), neither matter nor consciousness can be primary – they always exist and are two different manifestations of being. This viewpoint seems to be the closest to common sense. In fact, people tend to believe that they have both mind and body, and even though they somehow fit together, the difference between thoughts, feelings, and such material things as rocks or tables is too large to consider all these things as a single form of being. According to materialist outlook, matter (objective reality) is ontologically the primary cause, and the ideal is secondary. Materialism recognizes the existence of a single substance – matter; all entities are formed by matter and all phenomena (including consciousness) are the processes of interaction of material entities. According to the materialist theory, spiritual or mental is a subclass of physical processes in brain; thinking is identical to brain processes. Considering the question of the nature of consciousness materialism exists in two main forms: reductive and eliminative. Reductive materialism views all mental states and properties as states and properties of human brain. For example, leg pain can be identified as a quite material process of “ignition” of certain neural tissue. Eliminative materialism goes even further replacing all mental processes with neurophysiological or brain ones. It is impossible to prove the materialist doctrine either theoretically or empirically. One must go beyond matter to make a statement about the whole matter, assuming that mind is inside matter, because it depends on it (according to the materialists). The idea of ??the whole matter must be logically out of matter and above it. Locke’s Theory of Personal Identity John Locke was one of the first scientists in Western philosophy to study the problem of personal identity, distinguishing human identity (the identity of continuously changing particles that join with same organism) and personal identity of a rational being, endowed with self-consciousness (according to Locke, the latter is close to memory). In this sense personality can be saved after changing physical substance. According Locke’s theory of identity people cannot be resurrected after death with numerically same bodies they had in life. Consciousness of a resurrected ...Show more

Summary

Descartes’ Substance Dualism Studying the problem of existence, Descartes tried to create a basic, fundamental concept that would characterize the essence of being. For this purpose the philosopher created the concept of substance. The substance is all that exists, and does not require the existence of anything but itself…
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Descrates Substance Dualism essay example
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