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Descrates' Substance Dualism
Pages 9 (2259 words)
Descartes’ Substance Dualism Studying the problem of existence, Descartes tried to create a basic, fundamental concept that would characterize the essence of being. For this purpose the philosopher created the concept of substance. The substance is all that exists, and does not require the existence of anything but itself.
The first manifestation is the dualism of body and soul in man. Two substances—mental and material—are completely separated from each other. Descartes, however, mentioned the pineal gland, in which they are connected, but this argument has no effect. In general, there is a gap between them. Mental substance has no spatial parameters, material substance has spatial parameters. Descartes rejects admission of the existence of the body; he speaks of the mental unenbodied substance, which exists in itself separated from the body. The second manifestation is the duality of God and world. This is a deistic position: God is the creator of the world. Having created the world as an extended substance, he gave it the laws of mechanics and the first impulse. God does not intervene in the affairs of the world. After that everything develops according to the laws of mechanics. In terms of dualism Descartes solved the fundamental question of philosophy – the dispute about the priority of matter or consciousness is meaningless. Matter and consciousness are united only in man, and since man is dualistic (combines two substances – the material and the spiritual), neither matter nor consciousness can be primary – they always exist and are two different manifestations of being. This viewpoint seems to be the closest to common sense. ...
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