John Searle defines consciousness to consist of inner, qualitative, subjective states and processes of sentience or awareness. The subjectivity of consciousness is one of the issues that John Searle seeks to clarify. He argues out that consciousness is subject to some human or animal. All conscious states according to him have first person ontology and not third person ontology therefore they can only exist when experienced by some human or animal agent and it is therefore subject to the existence of a human or animal. I.e. it is dependent on the existence of an agent (human or animal) (Searle, 1980). Searle also points out that consciousness is purely a biological process in that is exclusively caused by neurobiological progressions and is realized in the brain structures. He however argues that it is different from other biological phenomena due to its qualitativeness, intentionality, subjectivity and unity traits. He likens the way the brain unites all of the variety of our different stimulus inputs into a single unified conscious experience to the way the visual system binds all of the different stimulus inputs into a single unified visual percept (Searle, 1980). Searle’s arguments are sensible in that they show sense on the connection between the state of the mind and consciousness. The fact that consciousness is a biological process explains how conscious states are processed and how they come to be. The explanations give greater insight to what consciousness is. Consciousness cannot occur without the interconnections between various aspects like sight and the mind. Various biological processes involving the brain have to take place for consciousness to be in place. One does not just become aware of their surroundings or environment through sight only. Seeing has to be accompanied by conceptualization of the environment for one to make a judgment on what he/she is seeing. Consciousness is therefore not a one instance thing but a process comprised of a number of activities and stages. I therefore support the argument that consciousness is a biological process and it is subjective. Semantic knowledge can be defined as established knowledge pertaining objects, facts and word meanings. They bear based on facts and the knowledge is shown by referencing of words. A good example is the statement, ` a snake is not a fast runner, in fact, and it cannot run at all.’ This is a representation of semantic knowledge because it points out a fact that depends on the referent of the word run. Syntactic knowledge on the other hand is basically linguistic knowledge that can be stated without a reference to the words they refer to. An example of syntactic knowledge is the statement `there are rampant cases of food insecurity and illiteracy in third world countries’ (Levy, Bayley, & Squire, 2004). This represents syntactic knowledge because it brings out the intended information or knowledge without having to use references that relates to expertise in grammar. The form of knowledge basically entails knowledge by description. The way I can describe a past experience I had is basically a form of knowledge. There are three major forms of knowledge namely intellectual knowledge which entails collection of facts, knowledge of states which entail human emotional feelings and the real knowledge which is basically what is considered as the reality. The content of knowledge on the other hand, is a prior knowledge on an issue one is trying to
MIND AND CONSCIOUSNESS Name: Institution: Mind and Consciousness Questions Consciousness is the state of being aware of one’s environment and one’s own sensations and thoughts or in a nutshell, the state of being awake and aware of one’s surroundings…
Metzinger (2010) argues that the Self is an “emergent phenomenon of our biology” and that it is possible to manipulate it. Blom, (2009) says that consciousness characterizes people’s being and realism, but the mechanism through which the mind creates thoughts and feelings remains unidentified.Any theory that is concerned with consciousness must be able to explain all elements that are traditionally associated with human consciousness.
Cartesian dualism focuses on two opposites being able to exist at the same time in space, but coexist peacefully together.
This idea does not make a lot of logical sense at first glance, nevertheless, this was Descartes's legacy. Cartesian dualism exists in the sense that, like the great thinkers Plato and Aristotle who had gone before, he agreed that there should be some uniformity as to how the universe was regulated.
Property Dualism: This view asserts that there is only one kind of substance -physical, but there are two kinds of properties-physical and mental, and that mental properties such as thoughts and emotions exist in some physical substance like the brain.
Ideas on mind/body dualism have been around for a long time, with great philosophers like Plato and Aristotle having views about a "soul" bearing intelligence and wisdom.
This was unsettling because our relationship to the world is determined by our knowledge of it: not being able to know anything has disastrous implications for our ability to act. Altered states of consciousness: for example dreams and trances and the consciousness of children or the insane: are disturbing because 1) these forms of consciousness arise from the same physical reality as more normal consciousness; and 2) they form an alternative construct wherein to understand physical reality.
As whatever consciousness ultimately might be, it is somehow based on the workings of the central nervous system. For centuries, the brain was considered to be a relatively unimportant organ used to cool the blood. By contrast, at present, the brain is the most complex chunk of ordered material we have encountered in the universe so far.
With its central place in philosophy—embedded in between the two most basic theoretical sciences—the philosophy of mind possess a grand importance in deciding various issues relating to psychology, biology, physics, and more. In the past few centuries, since the
Syntactic knowledge puts the user under a lot of pressure. Syntactic knowledge should be applied in the least possible time. Otherwise, the individual may not be able to recall it. For example, I am able to use MS Excel because
The author states that phenomenology as a faculty encompasses a wide range of experiences that could be either passive such as hearing or active such as knocking or jumping. Arts such as music, dance, acting, painting not only form a part of phenomenological experience in artist’s life but also they are deeply connected to each other.
The body, on the other hand, deals with the main physical attributes that make up a human being. It also houses the brain structure, which contains the mind. Whether these two have any connections or not is not an issue that many can answer without coming up
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