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Rousseau, Marx, and the Critique of Classical Liberalism - Essay Example

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Rousseau, Marx, and the Critique of Classical Liberalism Introduction Many thinkers tried to overcome the shortcomings of the liberal state and to implement a genuine democracy, in other words, the concept of collectivist democracy. This type of democracy in theory was designed in sufficient detail…

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Rousseau, Marx, and the Critique of Classical Liberalism

This name reflects the fact that it comes from the integrity of the people (nation, class), the presence of single will before the act of its public expression, and identity of the will and actions of the authorities. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx are the most prominent representatives of this theory of democracy. Rousseau’s Political Philosophy Idealizing the natural state, a kind of “golden age,” Rousseau believed that the civil state must guarantee the recovery of natural equality of man in the form established by the contract freedoms. Rousseau is considered the father of the classical theory of democracy, since he introduced the idea of popular sovereignty. By creating a state, people do not put themselves under the authority of the sovereign, but become the bearers of the supreme power. Considering the sovereignty of the people as indivisible, he opposed the division of sovereignty between any of the bodies. The legislature cannot be transferred to parliament, and must be carried out directly by the people. All laws are created by the common will of the people. Rousseau’s criticism of liberalism manifested itself most profoundly in the interpretation of the equality problem. Rousseau distinguishes between legal equality—or formal equality—and de facto equality. ...
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