Philosophy With the last man departing from this planet, it is true that the instrumental value of redwood turns to nil from human view point but not from the view point of other species as they will continue to live on this earth. Redwood continues to have intrinsic value as many species of birds and mammals make their nest high in the canopy of redwood trees and survive…
It would be worth exploring the view points of Peter Singer and Holmes Rolston with regard to the last redwood remaining on this earth and how they would have preferred to deal with this enigma. Speciesism in Humans Peter singer argues that human beings since their beginning have indulged into speciesism – a domineering human behavior over nonhumans and that needs to be condemned. Currently, humans treat nonhuman animals in the same fashion as Blacks were treated in the British rule. Peter argues that suffering is the primary feature that brings all animals on the common platform. He cites Bentham's view point and emphasizes that all sentient beings, all human and nonhuman animals included, should be given equal consideration. Using other Animals as Food Peter singer calls human beings as speciesists having a sole intention of dominating other species on this earth. That is why humans use other animals as their food. According to Singer, humans have instrumental value for animal life that is why they use animals to please their palate. It is incorrect to say that animal flesh is needed to fulfill the human needs of proteins. The fact is that many plant proteins such as soy beans and its derivatives provide equally good and high levels of proteins discarding the need of any animal flesh. In this process, humans inflict a great suffering to the animals by killing them. Animals are machines for humans that convert feedstock into meat. At times, animals are confined to a small enclosure until fit to give flesh. Can there be a larger example of human speciesism than this? Suffering – a Sole Decider for Equality Singer further emphasizes that a being, which does not suffer or feel happiness may be treated as unequal. A stone is a typical example of non-suffering when hit by a person on the road. That is how Singer draws a line between all animated and unanimated things in this universe and considers suffering as decisive and sole criteria of equating humans and all animals on the common platform. Philosophers’ Viewpoint Singer states that philosophers mostly defend their preconceived notions of the society they are part of and that also confirms about humans’ speciesist views. While discussing moral and political philosophy, they mostly speak in terms of human equality but never stretch the issue of equality to the other species. Extending this debate Singer asks why Hitler, Stalin, infants and mentally retarded people has a kind of dignity or worth that other animals can never achieve. There are humans that do exist below the level of awareness or self-consciousness due to brain damage yet philosophers never group them with the nonhumans. Rolston and Environment Ethics Rolston's argument goes beyond the humanist way of thinking. He speaks about the environmental ethics that knows no human cultures. Humans know about the ethics in the terms of business ethics, medical ethics, death and life, peace and war but the environment ethics go much beyond. He speaks about the biological conservation that comes out breaking open the shackles of human ethical boundaries. Organism – a Unique Biological Identity Rolston asserts that true respect to the life is possible only when we start thinking in terms of sentient to insentient life. An organism does have its own ...
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Some see in myth the distinct character of particular cultures, while others see universal patterns. Some regard myth as "contemporary" and "alive", while others think of it as "ancient" and/or "dead." (What is Myth?). Myth is defined from Greek word mythos meaning story or word and a study encompassing myths or body of myths is demonstrated as mythology.
How does it differ from other fields especially religion? Generally though, philosophy seeks answers to questions, but mostly about origin. About how humans started and stuff like that. Usually though, those questions are rooted in the religious or mythological framework.
This is also the reason why parents teach their children how to be in an un-controlled in order to be more mature little by little. In a specific professional field, you have to hold your emotion, the human nature which might lead you the wrong way. To a place that you wouldn’t recognize, in order to achieve stability.
Animals, too, have been the victims of inequality since the dawn of times, but they, on the other hand, cannot protest for their rights articulately. This task, therefore, has befallen on the shoulders of humans to speak for the unjustly treated animals. Certain groups of animal liberationists are taking radical steps towards the elimination of speciesism as these values and other human centred ethics have major flaws.
These animals are as ubiquitous as they are misunderstood. Walking down any street you will see countless of these animals, that have been bred for little other than human use, utility or enjoyment accompanied by owners who often do not know the first thing about properly caring for said animals.
Whether Or Not to Use Animals in Medical Research. One pertinent question that faces the modern world is the use of animals for scientific experimentation. Most ideas that have to do with nature especially animals have been formed in the midst of the controversy.
Its moral priorities are assigned to male interests and have the effect of denying women of their humanity, discounting their morality and subordinating, neglecting and undervaluing their interests. Because of the trends of women's liberation, the flaws only became subtle but nevertheless they still may be discerned upon closer inspection.
Angus Taylor, a faculty member of the Department of Philosophy in University of Victoria, uses instances from the general life of human beings and animals to theoretically persuade the cause of Animal Rights in the essay “Nasty, Brutish, and
He says that when a ‘reservoir’ is constructed, though people express concern that it would drown a valley teeming with wildlife, the reason behind this concern often lies in the fact that the valley has