This theory also holds that it is alright to be this way; it is rational. However, in the real world, if everybody blindly followed their hearts desires then there would be chaos. To this situation, this theory calls for application of rationality from a different angle. This angle prescribes that people should cooperate with one another and cut down on the purely self serving pursuits. This aspect defines the social contract nature of this theory (Shafer-Landau 188). People will not live life to the fullest, but they will avoid a worse fate of being in constant upheaval with society. What constitutes upheaval? Economists answer this question through the hypothetical prisoner’s dilemma situation. In this situation, two individuals must undertake actions that are not beneficial to the other party. Since it is rational to do the best for ones self, then the individuals both undertake these actions knowing full well that the other party will suffer. In a life time, there are countless situations that mirror the conflicts in this hypothetical situation. Maximizing self interest as it turns out is not a worthwhile approach to life. People while be brutal indulging horrid actions just to stay ahead (Shafer-Landau 192). There will be no trust, hope or peace for those with the slightest urge to be “nice” hence the constant upheaval. ...
These persons can range from parents at home to the government. Form this explanation; it is clear that cooperation needs more than one person. As such, this theory describes morality as a social phenomenon (Shafer-Landau 194). In the same way, this theory justifies the existence of moral laws; it justifies breaking these laws. It provides that, in the event, that cooperation fails then there is no need to uphold the moral laws. On the other hand, the theory justifies punishment of the law breakers. From this theory’s strengths, critiques derive dooming weaknesses. A moral theory has the duty to promote doing the right thing. However, this theory entertains the possibility of having a rational wrong for instance when a contract is void. Also, the approach of using rationality to justify action is lacking. As observed by Shafer-Landau (204) if the consequences of an unjust action are not as far reaching as the benefits, then it is rational to act unjustly. Much as, Hobbes tries to define rationality to co-exist with virtue, this is only possible in a world where justice prevails. In the event that the world is in a “natural state” (Hobbes description of anarchy), then being rational means survival for the fittest. A second theory that tries to define the extents of morality in regard to human behavior is ethical egoism. Ethical egoism describes how humans ought to act. Ethical egoism further asserts that moral duty should rely on doing actions that reflect best self interest. In doing so, one should not avoid actions that help others but is not under any obligation to pursue self interest in regard to the well being of others. Despite this radical stand, ethical egoism clearly states that self interest is not merely pleasure seeking.
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Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Social Contraction vs. Ethical Egoism The need to describe or establish ground rules on how people behave or ought to behave led philosophers to theorize immensely. There are many theories that try to assert certain obligatory aspects in regard to morality with little success…
When taken to extremes, either in society or analysis, it can become problematic. We can identify the obstacles it presents in life by the negative depiction of an 'egotistical person' or 'their ego got in the way'. Though as a philosophy it is untenable, it is useful in the development of society, economic systems, and our study of altruistic behavior.
In this philosophical perspective people are only motivated to act from self-interest or selfish reasons. (LaFave, 2004; Shaver, 2002).
Ethical Egoism is the assertion that people should always act selfishly or in their own self interest. According to this philosophical standpoint it is morally correct to take self interest or selfish motives as our guiding principle for action.
Ethical egoism is the theory that it is right to act out of self-interest. It refers to the rightness or wrongness of our actions and concludes that if we act out of self-interest, we are doing the right thing, and if we act not out of self-interest like, for example, helping others without regard for our self-interest, we are not acting rightly. Psychological egoism is the theory that all of us perform actions always motivated by self-interest.
In most cases, a person who is an egoist is a slave of vanity and seeks to benefit at the expense of the other individuals in the society. In the study we’re going to weigh the pros and cons between psychological
This paper outlines these benefits gained and costs incurred by performing service to others, elucidates the theory of ethical egoism, and also offers an analysis on whether my service is a morally good action.
I did my service learning on
Every activity or action one engages in, may it service hours or resources usually has a motivation tied to them, and effects that may result from the action. In such cases, there are benefits and costs that
One basis the effects of doing a certain act to himself. The ethical egoist approach states that the best thing is that which suits somebody’s ego. For example, if somebody is hungry and consumes somebody else food, this is the best for them and hence they can do it.
The author says that the issue of ethical egoism is concerned with the ethical position that humans are moral agents who should act in order to advance their self-interests. It is also concerned with human duties towards strangers and family members. Ethical altruism advances the notion that humans have a moral obligation to help strangers.
Ethical subjectivism is one of the most prominent ideas that insists that human subjectivity in ethics is derived from personal experience and perceptions. It is the belief that all ethical thought process,
Human beings are unique in nature hence every single action of help varies. Ethical egoism defines human behavior. The paper will thrive to define ethical egoism and discern whether altruistic actions results from
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