Argument Analysis and Evaluation According to naturalists, the world exists naturally. However, this school of thought assumes that the existence of reality is independent of the observers; thus, the observers should categorize and record these observations (Algra 251). Therefore, a well-developed philosophical accounts leading to any reality must be analyzed against the effects to humanity and world’s naturalist. Moreover, the activities of this reasoning must follow well-organized logical standards. The Aristotle’s ethical views may appeal to a rational reality determination of matters of existence of the universe, but acceptable behavior development and attitude confirmation is needed for proper reasoning towards assessing the reality in the world. Thus, only right characters can properly develop assessment of the world and react to such developments in line with creating values and virtues of these characters within the society (Algra 264). Despite of the contribution of philosophers like Aristotle, it is vital to note that reality often exist regardless of human reason and human activities. Regarding these assumptions, Hedonist and Stoic philosophers derived different social and ethical theories that can be used to examine and explain any intended changes in the nature.
Hedonism is a philosophical argument that defines happiness as pleasure created by avoidance of pain. However, in the contemporary world, the hedonist views can be understood as allowing an individual to peruse pleasure without analyzing the other effects on such actions (Algra 622). In fact, Epicurus was opposed to the quest of the bacchanalian pleasures especially regarding extreme sensuality. Epicurus argued that such physical pleasures are usually short-lived and follows an equally extreme pain (Algra 634). In this context, one may consider pleasure as pursue of life and avoidance of pain accordingly, and this can be related to effects of the FEELGOOD drug. Therefore, reality dictates one’s sensations; thus, physical pleasures are often experienced alongside physical pain. Up to this point, apparently, an individual pursues his or her existence through reflective and intellectual absorption since their intellect and emotions are the only things that they can control. However, emotions and ethical values are unknown and should never be feared. Pain is often a physical sensation and pain is recognized as evil; thus, it should be avoided. Life is quite contemplation that should only be recommended for an essentially physical being through rational capacities; therefore, a person should never detach his or her living being from the world. The inconsistency of Hedonism led to the Stoic philosophy. Notably, the Hedonism argues that life is primarily based on pleasure pursuit that is defined as avoidance of pain that leads to quiet contemplation. This argument supports the idea that human pleasure depends on the events of the world (Algra 421). Since, in most cases, the universe is never kind enough to humanity, depending on the world as a source of pleasure may not provide satisfactory pleasure. It is vital for an individual to develop right mental attitude towards diversity, but this should not only be on sensual pleasures since they may disappoint. Furthermore, it may be