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Midterm Questions

Anaximander, another Miletian philosopher and is said to be the first writer of philosophy, was said to be the first to draw a map and have speculated that the earth is not flat but spherical floating in air. The first scientific idea on the evolution of man is said to have be Anaximander’s first ideas out of his curiosity. 2. Part 1. For Anaximander the earth is cylindrical in shape; curved and round like a drum with flat surfaces and stays in equilibrium at the center of the cosmos. The heavenly bodies are according to him ‘breathing holes’ in the air. By this Anaximander is trying to explain the existence of the earth the sun and other elements in the sky. It is included in the history of philosophy because philosophy seeks to define what is real the same way Anaximander tries to relate the earth and the cosmos in a cyclical manner of things—why the sun, the moon and the stars are present in a cyclical pattern (Stamatellos,2006). Part 2. For Anaximander the earth never moves because in his cosmos the earth floats in the center and remains there by the forces surrounding it. Three of his astronomical speculations are: (1) that the celestial bodies make full circles and pass also beneath the earth, (2) that the earth floats free and unsupported in space, and (3) that the celestial bodies lie behind one another. Thus in his cosmos the earth is unmoved and everything else revolves around it (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2012). 3. Anaximenes’ grand theory talks about the air as major predecessors of things. He pointed out that the moisture from the earth has formed other heavenly bodies. Although Anaximenes’ belief is that the planets, sun and stars including the earth are flat disks, his assumption that these are above an “all-encompassing air” is one that is closely associated to modern thought of his time (Lawson, 2004). Anaximenes has his own way of explaining the difference between the planet and the stars; that the planets are moving in connection with air while the stars are fixed on its positions. These ways of thinking are one of the closest founding theories of his time. Anaximenes also imparted the significance of hot and cold on the formation of existing bodies. His works became a global inspiration on the discovery of atomic properties of matter. Anaximenes’ beliefs centered on air as the primary ingredient in the formation of the universe. In comparison, Thales believed that water is the main predecessor, while Anaximander held on to the theory of the constant and limitless source of life. 4. a. Draw and label all of the parts of the Square of Opposition. (Image source: International Encyclopedia of Philosophy) b. Suppose that the proposition “Some* are* joggers*” is false*. For each one of the corresponding propositions, state whether it may be immediately inferred to be true or false. Provide a succinct explanation of how you reached one of your immediately inferred conclusions. A. All are joggers- universal affirmative E. Not all are joggers- universal negation I. Some are joggers- particular affirmative O. some are not joggers- particular negation Proposition A is false because not all people are joggers some can be swimmers and other kinds of athletes. While proposition E states true that some people are joggers ...Show more

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1. Miletus was said to be where western philosophical thought could have originated because philosophical records show the existence of the Miletian philosophers that have sought answers to questions out of the mythological concept but on the rational. This consideration can be attributed to Thales who was a native of Miletus and is said to be the father of philosophy…
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