People thought the globe was the midpoint of the cosmos (Bacon 1960). That meant that the moon, planets, and the sun revolved around the earth. Europeans used ideas based on the physical world while Romans and Greeks believed in the Bible. However, attitudes changed in the mid 1500. A spirit of curiosity gave rise to a scientific revolution (Burns 2003). Scholars were willing to question old ideas and the level of focus was improved with much observation. Europeans were leading in the exploration leading to discovery of new lands and the establishment of universities. Francis Bacon, an English writer, assisted in fostering this approach. He urged scientists to base their opinions on what they could see in the world (Bacon 1960). R. Descartes used mathematics and logic to exert his immense influence. In the mid 1600, Isaac Newton established the law of gravity. He used mathematics to show the law of gravity controlled the motion of the planets and objects on earth (Burns 2003). Paris became the European cultural center in 1700 (Oslar 2000) where people from the entire Europe gathered to new ideas about enlightenment. Marie Therese became popular for hosting and funding ideas on enlightenment. According to the letters by Isaac Newton, religion and uniqueness were necessary for innovation. In the letters, Newton said that the discovery came as a result of patient thought. The letters contained significant propositions but were imperfect in some parts. According to Isaac Newton, no matter how matter was scattered, it would be infinitely attracted towards the center (Hankins 1985). This meant that at the center there would have a particle that is attracted to all other particles at equal measure (Goodman 1973). This became known as a state of perfect equilibrium. According to the observations of the great instauration by Francis Bacon, human intellect is responsible for its own challenges and difficulties (Oslar 2000). Therefore, man should use the help at his disposal to address the difficulties that he faces. This exposed the levels of ignorance and the damage it causes to the quality of life. He argued that through human efforts and determination life can be restored to the perfect condition or reduced to better condition that it is now (Burns 2003). Mathematics and philosophy grew so rapidly that the two had to be separated (Sax 2001). The impact is still being felt today. Scientist came to know that observing and explaining would help them in discovering the natural laws. The scientific method became increasingly prominent (Portar 2001). The discovering had an impact on education in all levels. As more people trained in science and physics, technology advanced and new technologies were discovered. Enlightenment had unprecedented impact in the quality of life (Goodman 1973). Complicated farm machinery and textile industry were discovered causing scientific and the industrial revolution (Sax 2001). Scientific revolution sought a break from a religious and theological approach to life (Hankins 1985). In medieval times, society was largely governed by church views and traditions which discouraged open-mindedness (Oslar 2000). Enlightenment was a movement that challenged people to think and make independent decisions. Newton, Descartes and Priestly played a significant role in the discovery of sextants slide rule and
Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution Name: Instructor: Subject: Enlightenment referred to the ability to reason and use of knowledge and available tools to solve current difficulties. The enlightenment movement was an age of reason when scholars began to question traditional practices and sought to have the freedom of opinion and expression…
Changes that in turn created the social principles that permitted the Enlightenment to brush through Europe in the late aforementioned centuries. One of the most significant of these transformations was the Scientific Revolution. It is not easy to pinpoint the exact period when this revolution started.
18th Century of Enlightenment & Revolution Introduction The eighteenth (18th) century was marked by major enlightenment events like the death of Louis XIV of France and the beginning of the French revolution. Philosophers of Enlightenment like Montesquieu advocated for the separation of the powers of the government while Rousseau was of the view that man is born free and citizens should be free to choose their government.
Two prominent French thinkers: Jacques Rousseau and Charles Montesquieu had their influence from two main intellectual currents during the period; science and 17th century philosophy. The enlightenment did not contribute to the revolution directly. However, the French revolution embodies some enlightenment themes and ideas.
The enlightenment age is most of the time known as the age of rationality or famously known as the age of reason. This a period which was confluence by a number of activities and ideas which led to many discoveries which took place during the eighteenth century through to the nineteenth century in the entire Europe, in American colonies, and in England.
The French Revolution is considered by many historians to be the first modern revolution in history. It did not only overthrow the existing leaders but, most importantly, it also change the existing structure of society. Moreover, even if the Revolution was initiated by
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe were filled with a wave of progressive and positive philosophies. This thinking spread fast in the whole continent, originating from the idea of secular progress and the rise of modernism. This was derived from the cultural, political, and economic developments that were experienced at the time.
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