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Assignment Handout for 2:critical exposition of an argument - Essay Example

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Assignment Handout for 2:critical exposition of an argument

Exposition Aquinas’ cosmological argument begins with an objection that concludes that God does not exist, and this is followed by the contention that there is no need to suppose God’s existence because everything is simply human reason or will. However, Aquinas quotes from the Book of Exodus in the Bible a statement that contradicts the first two conclusions. He then supports such contradicting statement with five proofs of God’s existence. The first objection to the question “Whether God Exists?” concludes that God does not exist: 1) Par. 1: God is infinite goodness; 2) Par. 1: If God existed, there would be no evil discoverable; 3) Par. 1: There is evil in the world; 4) Par. 1: God does not exist (Aquinas, 1998, p. 126). The first objection presents a negative answer to the question whether God exists. In fact, the second objection somehow supports the first objection. The second objection to the question presents a point of view which concludes that since everything can be reduced to human reason, then God’s existence must not be necessary: 5) Par. 1: If God did not exist, everything in this world can be accounted for by other principles; 6) Par. 2: All voluntary things can be reduced to one principle, which is human reason or will; 7) Par. 2: There is no need to suppose God’s existence (Aquinas, 1998, p. 126). Based on the preceding objection, the second objection begins with a supposition which implies that even if God did not exist, there would still be other principles that would explain the existence of all other things in this world. It then follows that all these principles can be reduced to one – human reason or free will. It then follows that God has no place in such a world where the only principle that exists is human reason or free will. However, surprisingly, Aquinas takes advantage of such a conclusion in his statements of contradiction: 8) Par. 3: It is said in the person of God: I am Who am (Exod. iiii.14); 9) Par. 2: All things can be reduced to human reason or will; 10) Par. 3: The existence of God can be proved in five ways [using human reason or will] (Aquinas, 1998, p. 126). Statement 8, or God’s declaration of Himself, is a contradiction of all the previous statements which reveal that God does not exist. However, for Aquinas, God’s declaration of Himself is not enough to account for His existence. Therefore, based on a previous a priori statement – All things can be reduced to human reason or will – Aquinas decides to support God’s declaration of Himself by proving His existence through human reason or will. Aquinas then proceeds with his five proofs of God’s existence: 11) Par. 4: In the world, some things are in motion; 12) Par. 4: Whatever is moved is moved by another; 13) Par. 4: But this cannot go on to infinity; 14) Par. 4: It is necessary to arrive at a first mover, who is God (Aquinas, 1998, pp. 126-127). The above proof is self explanatory and explicitly states the presence of an unmoved mover as the first mover, and this first mover is what “everyone understands to be God” (Aquinas, 1998, p. 127). Furthermore, Aquinas goes on to explain another proof of God’s existence, which is not linked to the first one: 15) Par. 5: There is an order of efficient causes in this world; 16) Par. ...Show more


Exposition and Critical Evaluation of Aquinas’ Cosmological Argument Name Subject Teacher Date               Exposition and Critical Evaluation of Aquinas’ Cosmological Argument Thomas Aquinas, the 13th century philosopher, Catholic saint and doctor of the Catholic Church proved God’s existence through five cosmological proofs which he did through logic…
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Assignment Handout for Essay 2:critical exposition of an argument essay example
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