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Admission Essay sample - The views of Plato with Aristotle on the nature of universals
Pages 3 (753 words)
‘Universals’ are general ideas according to the medieval philosophy. The dispute about the universals discussed whether they are objectively real or they are only the names of things. The problem of the universals with its definition first appeared in the teachings of Plato. …
He maintained that general ideas (universals) have a real existence, while the individual things that appeared to people really existing did not exist in fact. Ideas composed a special world, the reality of which was permanent and immobile. The ideas were the true cause of all things, their properties, relations, and, simultaneously, their goal. The general was dying in the individual specific things. Aristotle criticized Plato’s concept. Of the crucial importance for Aristotle was the fact that general was manifested only through the individual that was given through the sense experience. The ideas depended on subjects that could be perceived. As the essence of things, the ideas could not be separated from the things, essence of which they were.
Teleology is the philosophical doctrine of explaining the development of the world by the finite and purposeful reasons. Already in ancient philosophy, the processes of development in the wildlife and in the history were explained with special purpose causes. The principles of such teleological explanation were formulated by Aristotle. He believed that like the human activities included current goals, the natural phenomena included inherent potential target, which was realized in the course of the development of the phenomena. ...
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