Wittgenstein: Language Games and Religion in Wittgenstein's Mirror

Wittgenstein: Language Games and Religion in Wittgenstein
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Wittgenstein’s notion of language game was intended to provide answers to two interrelated philosophical issues: Is it possible to arrive at an objective view of the external world given that our individual experiences dictate our worldview, and if so, in what way could this be attained?


As for the first issue, Wittgenstein posited two essential concepts. First, that although objective reality exists, we will never be able to obtain an absolute and perfect knowledge given the limitability of our perspectives (OC). Such limit is influenced primarily by the openness of our senses to errors. Thus, while one person can be certain in his proposition that all apples are red, this cannot be taken as an absolute truth since another person may claim apples to be blue, given, say, a certain malfunction in his eyes. In this regard, Wittgenstein separated psychological from epistemic certainties (OC). Psychological certainty is one’s belief about a given object (i.e. that apples are red, skies are blue which may vary according to the physical state of the ‘gazer’) while epistemic certainty is the collective belief about an object given its role in human lives (i.e. hands exist because we see them being used by people in all occasions and their reality cannot be just made up in our heads). The second and more important concept of Wittgenstein highlighted two ideas: (1) that given the differences in people’s culture, habits, and upbringing, people will always have various perspectives about the external reality (our physical and social circumstances shape our view of the world); and (2) each perspective or worldview is true. ...
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