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He further argues that all animals posses sentience, and therefore animals should be treated the same way as humans regarding any morally relevant interest. Singer equates treating animals lesser than human beings to other forms of discrimination like racism and ethnicity. Furthermore, Singer equates animals with human beings who have irreversible brain damage. The utilitarian views of Singer are opposed and refuted by Cohen. Cohen argues that rights can only be restricted to moral agents. To refute Singer’s argument that animals have equal rights to humans, Cohen proposes a definition of rights as claims. A right according to Cohen is a claim made against somebody else. Cohen further argues that an obligation to ensure animal welfare cannot constitute a right. To prove this Cohen clearly shows that rights entail obligation but obligation cannot entail rights. However, Cohen’s fails to show how humans without the ability to claim their rights can enjoy rights. These groups of humans include human infants and mentally handicapped persons. Cohen’s speciesist theory failure to explain how humans without the capacity to claim rights can enjoy moral rights assists Utilitarianism answer his criticism for their explanation of animal rights. Prompt 2 The starting point for answering the question “Is there such thing as a moral saint?” always starts with an attempt to define the term. This is occasioned by the fact that any author who attempts to tackle the controversial question must have a standard of morality that the supposed “moral saint” satisfies. This approach is reflected in Wolf who starts his work by giving a brief description of what the moral saint is supposed to be. Wolf defines a moral saint as a person who strives to be as good as possible everyday and in every situation. Similarly, Carbonell in his work article Moral Saint Reconsidered also starts his exploration of the issue with a description of the term moral saint. According to Carbonell, moral saints are individuals whose conduct goes beyond the obligation of morality. She also describes moral saints as resolute and tenacious people, who are ready to make great human sacrifice. Carbonell concentrates on supererogatory actions that are beyond the call of morality as the main conduct that qualifies a person to be defined as a moral saint. Dr. Paul Farmer would not qualify as a moral saint under the standard set by Wolf in his definition of a Moral saint. According to Wolf a moral saint ignores common non-moral activities and takes a resigned and pessimistic attitude of vices and flaws in morality. In contrast, Dr. Paul Farmer is not moral in all situations as exemplified by his conduct of stealing drugs from an American hospital to aid in the treatment of diarrhea stricken Haitians. The fact that Paul Farmer cannot be considered a moral saint under Wolf’s definition points to the difficult those authors face in defining the term moral saint. Thus, it cannot be taken as a weakness in Wolf’s argument in trying to answer the question “Is there such thing as a moral saint?” Prompt 3 Moral luck can be defined as a situation whereby moral responsibility is assigned to a moral agent for action or consequence that they do not have full control over. According to Williams, luck influences the life of humans in countless way. Luck determines whether a person will be happy or successful in life. However, luck should not play any role in the moral responsibil ...Show more


Part A. 1. TRUE 2. TRUE 3. TRUE 4. TRUE 5. TRUE 6. TRUE Part B Prompt 1 Singer argues that animals have equal rights with men as they are a species that has life. According to Singer there should be some concern for the wellbeing of animals in a moral society…
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