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Philosophy 1 Chapter 4 of the book by Solomon, Higgins, and Martin (2011) begins with the quote from Alice in Wonderland where the Caterpillar questions the very importance of self (p. 285). In Carroll’s (1996) text, neither the caterpillar nor actually Alice care too much about their identities.


That means that there are still limits to human will. In this paper, I will be arguing for the contradictory nature of self-identity that establishes itself through choice, as Existentialists assert (Solomon, Higgins and Martin, 2011, p. 303), but necessarily encounters the opposition to its choice from the parts of the larger context (“Others”). I believe that the working momentary compromise between the assertions of human will (internal factors) and such external factors as natural circumstances, or the will of other(s), is a possible solution of the problem of self-identity. Such thinkers as Locke and Sartre strictly associated self with consciousness: Locke believed this because he relied on the separation of mind and substance (Solomon, Higgins and Martin, 2011, p. 291) while Sartre emphasized such act of consciousness as choice. This notion is very controversial for a number of reasons. Firstly, there are states of mind in which the present of self is either not registered or not controlled by ‘consciousness’, the ones that are conceptualized as different brain waves in contemporary neurology (Hall, 1998). Beta wave is associated with awake condition while alpha (relaxed) or theta (sleep) waves are slower in frequency, which prevents humans from performing the whole scope of actions they would be capable of in an awake state (Hall, 1998). ...
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