Descartes work was centered on the issues that challenge one’s ability to be certain about something. His path to establish certainty begins a state of doubt. It is this doubt that prompts him to choose to demolish all the knowledge he had in the past (Descartes 87). He will then start afresh through testing the validity of things before being certain of their existence. He searches to establish a foundation of philosophy that cannot be shaken. This is because much of the knowledge he obtained in the past was through senses that at times are deceptive. In this he highlights, it is somehow difficult to distinguish when one is asleep and when awake. He majors on meditation, which is regarded as a philosophical classic. However, he provocatively pursues the issues to do with these important matters.
Provocatively, Moore challenges the argument concerning ones inability to know whether he is dreaming. In the logical inversion of Descartes argument, Moore argues that, if one knows not that he is dreaming, one knows not that he standing. Additionally, people is unsure of his standing and realize that he is not hallucinating, (Moore 30). This is logical since one can only dream when asleep. Additionally, one can be dreaming or think he is standing and in actual sense, he is standing. This is the only case where dreaming and thinking to standing and standing at the same time is consistent. Moore’s concern on external world’s existence is evident. Given the reality, it is impractical to prove its existence.
According to him, so many oppositions can, be used to prove the existence of the external world. In his illustration to demonstrate the fact about the existence of the world, he uses his hands. For instance, when he holds up his hands, it is certain that he is holding up his hands. The conclusion from the above illustration shows it is true that he has hands. If it has truth in it, more illustrations are also true. About external world issue, similar proofs can be used to tell the existence of it (Kim and Sosa 30). While Descartes says that dreams have taken place, he not sure he is dreaming. This is to mean that he does not know that the dreaming has taken place. In evaluating Descartes ides, “doubt” and “thinking” brings inconsistency the ideas. Descartes is unsure of his existence, although he thinks he does. The reason validating his doubt is that he may be dreaming or is being deceived by a demon that he exists. The reason for him to think he exists is that he is only thinking without any objective proof of his existence. The proof about his existence is only subjective. He is unable to convince others of his existence, (Moore 34). Descartes argument has weaknesses and strengthens. He says that all things he knew as truth in his childhood have been falsehoods. This is a weak argument because; lack of proof cannot guarantee one to assume it is false. He later justifies his attempt to ruin that entire truth he had known over years and started afresh. He wanted something that had a strong foundation that did not rest on mere assumptions and feelings (Descartes 87). This is quite right to be passionate to do away with former opinions unless tested to be true. Additionally, he says not all the ideas and information he has is false. He makes an excuse that, for the opinions that he is not certain with, he will not touch on them. This gives a loophole for doubt and uncertainty. To assess which opinions are not certain would be a tedious job; therefore, he will not go through