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In determinism, deliberation is necessary as there is uncertainty involved, and the choice made is the one with the most advantageous outcome. In determinism, one can get to choose his motives or prevent the motives from acting on his will. In Determinism, humans are never masters of their own will and motives, and thus they never act freely because one's will gets moved by causes independent to them. Ideas associate independently of us, and they get arranged in the brain without one's knowledge. One's memory depends on his organization, and its fidelity depends on the momentary or habitual state we find ourselves (Tully 175). People's ways of thinking get determined necessarily by their ways of being. Determinism shows that the actions of human beings are never free as they are usually the consequences of their temperament, received ideas and notions of happiness. Others also get determined by educational example and daily experience. According to freedom, the future holds one’s possibility with the best outcome. In freedom, one contains in himself causes inherent to his existence. Furthermore, he gets moved by an internal organ that has its own laws and is necessarily determined by ideas, perceptions and sensations received from external objects. We do not know the mechanism of these sensations and perceptions, or the way ideas get printed in the brain because we cannot discern all these movements (Tully284). We cannot also perceive the operations in the soul or principles that act in us. Freedom enables people to be free because they imagine that the soul can willfully call to mind ideas that sometimes suffice to curb passionate desires. According to freedom, there are possible alternative futures and things could have happened differently from the way they did. Freedom entails acting without external constraint. This is dangerous as it involves acting without any intelligence. Determinism ensures humans are cautious and organized in nature as Freedom suggests one being in total control of his motives. One has various opportunities and the ability to choose on one without necessarily deliberating on it. Determinism involves making a choice without considering the consequences of the actions (Tully194). Freedom entails controlling people's will and having motives working on their will. This makes determinism to become the preferred account of human agency as it will lead to shame, regret, and remorse when we undertake decisions without rationalizing on them. Determinism is also correct because it ensures responsibility and efficiency as one chooses an alternative with the most advantageous outcome. William James proposed a two-stage model. In his opinion of free will, In determinism was the cause of what he referred to as alternative possibilities and ambiguous futures. According to him chance was not the direct cause of actions and he made it clear that it was his choice that granted him consent to do an action. In his Oxford Street and Divinity Avenue thought experiment he intended to explain the two stage decision process. He said both ways could lead him home but he had to choose one as it was ambiguous and matter of chance. By pluralism, he means it is a position which has several principles which are independent and cannot be unified. Monism on the other hand, is where there is only one ultimate principle. Question 3 Locke says that ...Show more


Ali Diop Philosophy Class John O’Shea 2 May 2013 Final Exam Question 1 Determinism is the doctrine which proposes that everything that happens in the future gets predetermined; by the way things are now. It involves deliberating when there is uncertainty or when experience has not sufficiently taught about the effects that one's actions will have on him or her…
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