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Kant’s Deontology posits that the best way to act morally to act from duty with the consideration of the highest good, that is, acting through the moral determination of the will. Kant’s acting through the moral determination of will meant that the motivation of one’s action must be pursue the good without condition which is intrinsically good by itself (Kant 30). He formulated his deontological ethics in a categorical imperative of doing good for the sake of good regardless of its consequence (Kant’s Ethics). The three propositions of moral determination of the will are as follows; a. Universal Law formulation - "Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law (Kant 30) ". This means that if one is to act good, that will should not be subjected to any condition or any physical constraints. b. Humanity or End in Itself formulation - "Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end” (Kant 30). This meant the free will is a source of rational action. A logical free will should therefore be an end itself because an end is subjective that they needed to be pursued. Whereas, the rationale action is objective and therefore must be categorically pursued. c. Kingdom of Ends formulation - is the integration of the first two laws that says "All maxims as proceeding from our own [hypothetical] making of law ought to harmonise with a possible kingdom of ends (Kant 30)". This meant an autonomous will is not subject to anything but it must bind itself to the first two laws to make it applicable to everybody that people by themselves are both a means and an end. Kant explained the etymology of the expression of his deontological ethics. According to Kant, imperatives imply what they meant which are command such as “wake up early”. Often they are hypothetical imperative because they only serve a specific objective or purpose such as “wake up early so you will not be later for work”. This imperative or command becomes categorical when it is applied universally and that the actions and decisions of individuals are to be judged solely by their motivations and that the consequences do not matter morally (as in the case of hypothetical imperative) neither the intended consequences nor the actual consequences matter morally; only the principle or rule we follow if we do the action matters morally. In simpler terms, this meant doing what is good regardless of consequence and that by doing is an end by itself. Thus, actions themselves become an end and this action should be a rational result in the exercise of freewill. In the example stated, categorical imperative dictates to “wake up” early because it is good to wake up early even without considering one’s need not to be late for work. Consistent to this, Kant’s categorical imperative states that every person has the duty to use and exercise his goodness/humanity as a means to an end. The application of Kant’s second law of categorical imperative is best illustrated in slave ownership. A slave owner may assert his right to own a property which in this case is a slave. While ownership by itself is not immoral, slave ownership ...Show more

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Name Teacher Class Date Discuss Kant’s deontological ethics in Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. First, explain the three propositions that Kant gives in Section I concerning the moral determination of the will. Next, explain how Kant distinguishes between a hypothetical imperative and a categorical imperative…
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