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Ethical Systems number: PHI208 Megan McLaughlin Date submitted: 6/27/13 ETHICAL SYSTEMS Introduction In order to explain morality and ethics, about five or more systems of ethics have been developed. Ethical relativism is one such ethical system, which contends that there are no universally valid principles (Wundt, 2010)…
A third system of ethics is the deontological theory that lays emphasis on self-rule, acts of kindness, and universal justice. The fourth ethical theory is the virtue ethics. This theory contends that morals exist internally, laying more emphasis on the production of individuals who act ethically because they are naturally good people. Utilitarianism is the fifth widely accepted system of ethics. According to this theory, utilitarianism as a theory of ethics contends that actions need to be considered as wrong or right with regards to the consequences that the actions have. The theory makes an argument that good actions are those that give great happiness to as many individuals as possible (Wundt, 2010). Despite the fact that utilitarianism as an ethical theory has come in for some criticism, especially from the philosophical side, the theory is the most convincing of all the other mentioned ethical systems. Utilitarian Ethical System Utilitarianism as an ethical theory can be dated as far back as the 17th century. The theory is attributed to Thomas Hobbes, who was an ancient student of philosophy before it was reviewed Bentham in the 18th century and Stuart Mill reviewed it later (Ekland-Olson & Dirks, 2011). ...