Therefore, culture directly relates to institution because cultures like the formal legal institutions impose constraints on individual behaviour; however, recent work on culture emphasizes the contrast between generalized and limited morality. Generalized morality means that individuals support various set of norms valid for all citizens in any society, without eliminating any group of people thus opportunistic and amoral behaviour is regarded as morally acceptable and justified. Recent works on individualism and collectivism cultural dimensions have essential and robust causal effect on innovation and long-term growth and found that cultural dimensions never correlate to individualism and collectivism do not have long-term effect on growth. Individualist culture rewards social status of an individual’s accomplishments like essential discoveries, humanitarian achievements, technological advances, great artistic accomplishments and other actions that make a person stand out. Collectivism emphasises collection of individuals in large groups that encourage conformity and discourage people from dissenting and standing out. Productive people are suspicious and are coaxed into sharing surplus with the community, which seems to be show collective punishment exists to punish the rich. Behind the punishment is fear that community’s cohesiveness may be undermined and that the individual who proves to be successful may leave the village or may not distribute any surplus production. Individualism emphasises that individuals ought to take care of themselves rather than being in a strongly integrated and cohesive group. Individualist and collectivist culture have various economic effects which have been under exploration both in economic and institutional influences of collectivism and individualism. In the modern society, since individualist culture offers social status reward to individual who stand out, it is essential for it to be encouraged because it gives special, culturally motivated incentive toward innovation, which stands out from the usual monetary incentive. Nevertheless, individualism can ensure collective undertakings remain difficult because individuals follow their comfort without internalising collective interests. On the other hand, collectivism makes collective action easy since individuals internalise group interests even though it encourages conformity and discourages people from standing out. Hence the frame work shows that individualism encourages innovation while collectivism has the advantage of coordinating production processes in various forms of collective actions. Thus, in an endogenous growth model the models has to have two sectors; one that is made up of final goods sector, which is competitive and produces good utilising labour and intermediate inputs. Collectivist culture is considered to offer a competitive edge in production of final products since collectivism makes coordination of activities easy and production of final goods is great when superiority of intermediate inputs is high. Nevertheless, entrepreneurs who create different and imperfectly substitutable inputs that are aimed at the manufacture of final goods dominate the intermediate goods sector. This prestige is common in strong individualist cultures than in collectivist cult
Modern societies have engendered the development of privatization, which tends to empower self rather than transcending being with ultimate authority; therefore, this stresses individualistic values of freedom and self-assertion while pre-modern approaches are associated with communal structures…
This, in the end, instilled the culture of development in the colonised countries. The colonised countries had to learn development aspects from the colonialists. Though this was costly, the colonials were determined to make an improvement to the lesser states which did not have progressive cultures.
Business Perpetuates Rather Than Reduces Inequality in the Society. Businesses have sprung up in many societies. These businesses are meant to provide income for the members of society. In so doing they are supposed to aid in bridging the gap between the rich and the poor and reduce societal inequalities.
WHY DOES SOCIETY FIND IT EASIER TO ACCEPT WOMEN AS THE VICTIMS RATHER THAN THE PERPETRATORS OF CRIME? The involvement of women in the system of criminal justice has been largely as victims of crime rather than as the perpetrators. As female make up almost half of the victims of violent crime, they also represent the smallest percentage of the offenders (Carr-Hill & Stern 2008).
For this reason, capitalistic system of economy can determine the different ways through which opportunities people have, can improve by engaging them in individual effort to look for the required resources. However, while the view of capitalism from an individualistic perspective is good, in other cases, it will be difficult to differentiate it from the collectivist perspective because of the infrastructures, which are available to promote exploitation of nature.
But was Karl Marx, sometimes in collaboration with friend and political economist, Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) who revolutionized the relationship of material production and the role of human beings within social structures. He devoted a good part of his time to economic studies on the flaws of the capitalist society; and produced some famous works like the 'Communist Manifesto' (1848) and 'Das Capital' (1867), with one aim: the self-emancipation of the working class.
The changes, planned on a grand scale, reflected more than a series of legal decisions. Many of the significant ones in fact took effect without alterations in the penal code, as when states ceased to demand the death penalty for some capital crimes, like sodomy or adultery.
c) Bullies often attack their victims without a reason, sometimes just for the fun of seeing other people cry. One reason is because the victims do not fight back, and lastly, d) Bullies are very popular with their peers who are also as aggressive and troublesome as they are.
What does this expression actually mean in the economic context and importantly in the ethical context? How does this process, impacts the various stakeholders from business organizations to common people both in the economic context as well as in the ethical
The constituent parts of a society include the economy, polity, religion, culture and the education system. Social harmony is achieved when all the parts are functional and in decent shape. This essay will explore the
7 pages (1750 words)Essay
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