Final Exams

1. B 2. E 3. D 4. D 5. A 6. D 7. A 8. C 9. C 10. C 11. C 12. A 13. C 14. D 15. C 16. A 17. A 18. C 19. D 20. C 21. C 22. B 23. C 24. C 25. D 26. A Computation Section (Answer 6 Questions) Follow instructions in the Final Examination document. Answer all questions according to the instructions. Number each question here according to its number in the Final Examination document provided by your instructor. Show your work. 1. Solution: mass = 10 kg ; horizontal force (P) = 50 N ; frictional force (f) = 25 N By Newton’s Second Law of Motion: F = ma P - f = m*a ---? 50 - 25 = m*(10) ---? 25 = 10*a Dividing each side by 10 ---? a = 2.5 m/s2 2. Solution: (a) frequency = 3 cycles / sec (based on the given) (b) wavelength = 2 meters (given) (c) speed = wavelength * frequency = (2 m.)*(3 cycles / s) ---? speed = 6 m/s 3. Solution: First, find the rate constant ‘k’ ---? k = = ---? k = 0.2235 Applying A = A0 e –kt where A0 - initial amount and A - amount at any time (t, min) At A0 = 1.0 gram and t = 9.3 minutes A = (1.0) ---? A = 0.1251 gram 4. Solution: Since V = I*R where V = 6 V and R = 10 ohms Then, current I = V / R = ---? I = 0.6 Ampere and power, P = I2R = ---? P = 3.6 Watts 5. Solution: pH = - log [H3O+] = - log (1.0 x 10-5) ---? pH = 5.0 Since the pH is below 7.0 (neutral), then the solution is ACIDIC. pH + pOH = 14 ---? 5.0 + pOH = 14 ---? pOH = 9.0 pOH = - log [OH-] so that [OH-] = = [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-9 M 6. Solution: (a) Start balancing atoms other than O atoms 2 Ni + 3/2 O2 ---? Ni2O3 Then get rid of fraction coefficient(s) by multiplying each by 2 4 Ni + 3 O2 ---? 2 Ni2O3 (b) Start balancing with HF, then HBr F2 + 2 HBr ---? Br2 + 2 HF Essay Section (Answer 8 Questions) Complete these answers in your own words. Follow instructions in the Final Examination document. Answer all questions according to the instructions. Number each question here according to its number in the Final Examination document provided by your instructor. 1. How would you explain the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy? Give an example from the real world where potential energy is transferred to kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy (KE) is the energy associated to the body or object in motion whereas Potential Energy (PE) is the energy stored in a stationary particle or system based on its position, specifically height. One concrete example of conversion from potential to kinetic energy is an automobile at rest on top of a hill is driven down the slope so that it is set in motion which may vary over time when the driver decides to increase or decrease its speed. 2. How would you describe the differences between heat, temperature, and thermal energy? Give examples of how each term is used. Temperature is an intensive property and a measure of hotness or coldness of an object or body of particles. On the other hand, heat is referred to as an energy transfer that takes place due to temperature difference while thermal energy is regarded as an internal energy of a thermodynamic system. Heat flows from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature and without a change in temperature, no heat is shifted. As an energy established within the system, moreover, thermal energy may either increase or decrease when work is done by or on the system and similarly, when heat is absorbed by the system or released on the
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