For example, tumor cells often lack the necessary mechanisms required to effectively repair radiation damages. Despite the relative efficacy, safety and reliability of most conventional radiation modalities one of the key problems associated with many photon beams therapies is how to deliver an ideal dose that will kill all the tumor cells without affecting the surrounding normal tissues. However, this is often difficult to achieve due to the unavoidable deposition of radiation dose at the point of radiation entrance (Durante and Loeffler, 2010, p.42). The therapeutic application of charged particle energy beams began in 1946 after the discovery of the radiobiological properties of proton beams. Since then, the use of particle beam radio therapy procedures such as proton therapy, heavy ion therapy and neutron therapy is increasingly gaining importance in therapeutic radiobiology particularly in the treatment of diseases such as cancer (Cunha, 2010, p.1505). The delivery of the radiation in sessions (fractionation) in particle beam therapy also ensures that the target cells are destroyed while the surrounding normal tissues are able to repair themselves. This is particularly attributed to their characteristic physical depth-dose distribution ability that ensures maximum high precision impact on the target tumor cells. Compared to the conventional photon radiotherapy, the use of high energy beams of charged protons, neutrons and heavy ions provides significant advantages particularly in the treatment of deep localized tumors. For example, treating cancerous or tumor cells using beams of charged particles allow a more precise approach than most of the conventional radiotherapy modalities. This consequently shortens the treatment time while at the same time minimizing the irradiation of the surrounding disease free tissues. This paper critically analyzes the radiobiology of proton therapy, heavy ion therapy and neutron therapy as well as their potential benefits and limitations. Figure 1: Comparative lateral penumbra for photons, protons and heavy ions (carbon ions) Proton Therapy Proton beam radiotherapy is increasingly being used due to its numerous potential physical and radiobiological advantages over the conventional radiotherapy techniques. According to Schulz-Ertner and Tsujii (2007, p.954), protons are particularly preferred as a radio therapy option due to their distinct depth –dose profile which makes them particularly suitable for therapeutic use in deep seated, localized and radioresistant tumors. Although the use of proton therapy for tumor treatment is currently a well established therapeutic modality in many parts of the world, the application of other heavy ions and neutrons is still restricted to a few medical facilities due to the potential dangers associated with such high energy beams. Proton particle therapy works by directing energetic ionizing particles such as protons, neutrons or heavy ions towards the target tumor cells. The particles then damage the DNA of the target cells thereby causing their ultimate death. The radiation induced cell death is primarily caused by the damage to the nuclear materials due to secondary electron production. For example, particle beams such as protons often deposit their energy at higher linear energy transfer (LET) compared to electromagnetic radiation (Fokas et al., 2009, pp.224). The dose deposited in the surrounding tissues is one of the most important aspects of particle beam
Radiobiology of Proton Therapy, Heavy Ion Therapy and Neutron Therapy [Name] [Institution] Radiobiology of Proton Therapy, Heavy Ion Therapy and Neutron Therapy Introduction Charged particle therapy currently plays a critical role in the treatment and management of cancer…
The primary focus of drama therapy is to assist people grow and heal by practicing and taking on new roles. Drama therapists broaden their applications further than the clinical setting to enhance the lives of at-risk persons, improve the health of people and prevent problems. Drama therapy encompasses psychology and drama; psychology is the study of emotions, thoughts and behavior, while drama evaluates and presents the emotions, thoughts and behavior of people for an audience to observe and understand.
The theory is particularly well developed (and empirically supported) in the case of depression, where clients frequently experience unduly negative thoughts which arise automatically even in response to stimuli which might otherwise be experienced as positive.
But what is the reality and undoubted fact it is increased interest to the alternative approaches in the wound healing. British researchers and health care patricians participate very actively in the process of developing this "new old" method of wound debridement.
Massage is known to decrease anxiety and improve circulation, thereby improving sleep quality. As a result, it has been found to promote higher energy levels, reduce fatigue, and facilitate better concentration and mental alertness. It is useful as part of a treatment program for many types of conditions:
Nevertheless, within practice settings and specialty areas there are varying representations of occupational therapy practice and different aspects of the OT process may take priority. Occupational therapy aims to improve a person’s productivity and usefulness in spite of any physical dysfunction of psychosocial disorder.
1). This profession requires physical and mental agility to which I possess.
My interpersonal and communication skills would allow me to work well with the patient and other health care providers (e.g.
in human behaviors and in this issue those who would want to come up with empirical evidence regarding the impact of common diversion programs on recidivism. After all, evidence-based research on this area is necessary for effective evaluation of the effectiveness of juvenile
a matter of fact, there are medical institutions that maintain resident pets such as the Children’s Inn of the National Institutes of Health at Bethesda, Maryland and the Sierra Vista Regional Medical Center. This emerging medical phenomenon is becoming an important part of
efore, feminist therapists focus on understanding the social and cultural setups in which an individual lives in order to understand his or her problems. Feminist therapy emerged after an evident dissatisfaction with the traditional therapies that did not give regard to the
Seigel about my back pain and he administered heat therapy to me. At first, I was very nervous because I thought that heat therapy would not work for me. However, the result was excellent because I got some pain relief after the therapy.
Heat therapy is a
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