882). As Revonsuo argues that nightmares do not support psychological theories according to which dreams serve emotional healing and adjustment problems. Revonsuo argues, however, that dream content is not as random as theorists claim. In fact, dream content is not only highly organized, but also highly selective. While dreaming occurs, the brain recreates a complicated representation of the world and these representations can either exaggerate waking world experiences of downplay them (Revonsuo 783). Revonsuo also argues that the content of dreams illustrates that dreams are mediated by specific experiences in the waking world. As a result, Revonsuo hypothesizes that dreams are therefore biological functions that serve to “simulate threatening events, and to rehearse threat perception and threat avoidance” (p. 783). Revonsuo supports his hypothesis by arguing that empirical studies consistently demonstrate that dream content is usually associated with “threatening elements” (p. 883). In other words, dreams usually involve negative experiences and rarely involve positive experiences. For example, a study conducted by Hall and Van de Castle in 1966) involved dream recollections from 500 females and 500 males between the ages of 18 and 25. The contents of the dream recollections revealed that 80% of the dream contents were negative experiences and only 20% contained positive experiences. Relying on the study conducted by Hall and Van de Castle, Revonsuo observes that a majority of the negative dreams were comprised of attacks or apprehensions of attacks from strange men or animals and in each case the dreamer either took flight or attempted to take flight or hid, or immediate arose from sleep (p. 884). Revonsuo evaluates why strange men and/or animals are the predominant threats in dream contents. Revonsuo goes back to the experiences of primitive man and notes that our ancestors existed in an environment in which animals were persistent threats. Our ancestors developed a survival instinct in which running, hiding or otherwise escaping became a staple coping mechanism. These human fears and instincts continue to haunt modern man. Dreaming simulates and perpetuates our instinctive and ancestral “threat-avoidance programs” (Revonsuo 884). Moreover, human relations were such that men often fought with one another for access to resources necessary for basic living. Although today, interactions with strange men are rarely threatening, it remains true that violence and wars are more frequently committed by males than by females. Therefore unpleasant dream contents in which strange men are the aggressor are also rooted in our ancestors’ survival instincts (Revonsuo 884). Essentially, Revonsuo concludes that dreams represent simulations of threats and that actions played out in dreams are actually representations of waking world experiences of possibilities. Dreaming about perceptions of threats and mechanisms for avoiding threats is no more than a rehearsal or simulation technique conducted in a relatively safe location: the dream world (Revonsuo). Essay 2: Kirsch, I.; Lynn, S. J.; Vigorito, M. and Miller, R. R. “The Role of Cognition in Classical and Operant Conditioning.” Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 4(2004): 369-392. Previously classical condition was perceived as a reflexive response to external stimuli. For example,
Psychology Essays Course Date Essay 1: Revonsuo, A. “The Reinterpretation of Dreams: An Evolutionary Hypothesis of the Function of Dreaming.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2000), Vol. 23: 783-1121. Dreaming is a common human experience and researchers have constantly attempted to understand and explain the functioning of dreaming…
Eventually, the dogs would even salivate when the experimenter entered the room. This phenomenon demonstrated that the dogs had learned to anticipate the food being presented. Classical conditioning became defined as the presentation of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance (the “unconditioned” stimulus).
I will be applying various theories of learning to a case involving a 4 year old girl who was frightened by the dramatic events surrounding a kitchen fire in her home, and who now has a dramatic emotional response each day at noon, when a local siren sounds.
As couple A and B exit their condo block to go for a morning walk (US) to get their exercise (UR), down Leon Avenue, they see couple C and D enter into a gymnasium several doors down (CS), which they are intending to pass on this particular morning’s walk.
I aim to read a watercolor painting book and I need to condition myself to read it every day. My goal is to read each chapter of this book and to apply skills mentioned there. I will use conditioned stimulus to achieve my desired conditioned response of reading the watercolor painting book.
Because of this addiction, I sacrifice sleep and other extra-curricular activities, although I make sure that I do not sacrifice my studies by playing. Lately, however, I have been increasing my play hours and this is bothering me. I want to decrease my hours of play to only 2 hours during school days and 3 hours during non-school days.
Associative learning happens when people or animals connect stimuli with responses (Lilienfeld et al., 2010, p. 182). These responses to stimuli can be removed, however, through the process of extinction. Extinction demonstrates that learned responses that are not reinforced right away will slowly lose its impact on animal/human behaviors (Lilienfeld et al., 2010, p.
It is a learning procedure which generally takes place through alliances between a naturally happening stimulus and an ecological stimulus. It has been apparently observed that the chief constituent present in classical conditioning is association. It implies that if in excess of one stimulus is constantly experienced together then they would become associated.
The process of learning to meet the demands of the environment is called conditioning. Conditioning is basically of two types i.e., Respondent Conditioning and Operant Conditioning.
According to Pierce and Cheney "Respondent conditioning occurs when a neutral or meaningless stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus" example being salivation of dog when food is placed at its mouth.
He provided the dogs with food, and monitored their salivary response and then he began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. He noticed that the dogs would begin to salivate on seeing his assistant carrying food pans even before he presented the
irst inferred that learning resulted from an individuals interactions with the environment whereas; the other assumption credited the environment for influencing behaviors. In addition, behaviorists discredited the use of internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings as a
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