The first group encompasses materials with reduced dimensions in the form of nanometer-sized constituent part, thin wires or thin films. The second group includes materials in which the nanometer-sized microstructure is restricted to a thin external region of a bulk material. PVD, CVD, ion embedding and laser beam treatments are the usually used processes to change the chemical structure or atomic structure of solid planes on a nanometer scale. The third groups of bulk solids are with a nanometer-scale microstructure. Materials with a nanometer-dimensional microstructure are named Nanostructured Materials (NsM) (Gleiter). The fusion, classification and meting out of such NsM are developing and fast rising arena denoted as nanotechnology (Grossard).Since the material goods of solids rest on the dimension, atomic structure and chemical configuration, NsM show fresh properties due to many effects. Dimensional effects result if the typical dimension of the structuring blocks of the microstructure is abridged to the point wherever critical length scales of physical phenomena develop analogous.Variation of the dimension of a NsM contains of thin needle-shaped crystallites, simply two or one aspect of the building blocks come to be analogous with the length scale of a physical phenomenon. In these circumstances the NsM come to be a two or one-dimensional system pertaining to this phenomenon. The second case of nanostructured alloys outcomes if the crystallites of a NsM have dissimilar chemical compositions.
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