Suppose furthermore that these variants are distributed in the population independently of one another.
Since A and B are now dependent, the probability of a randomly selected person to have the two variants, A1 and B1, will increase as these two variants will in most cases be found together (dependent distribution)
In the movie Superman, the infant Kal-El’s father Jor-El gives him a crystal about the size of a tube of toothpaste and leaves a recorded message telling him that it contains the combined knowledge of the “28 known galaxies.” Suppose that this extraterrestrial crystal is a covalently bonded array of atoms spaced about 0.4 nm apart (like diamond on Earth) and that it contains information encoded in defects in the crystal lattice (For example, a defect could be a missing carbon atom.
b. If a human encyclopedia of the 21st century fits comfortably on a digital video disk (4.7 GB, or 38 . 109 bits), about how many encyclopedias worth of information per “known galaxy” could Jor-El have recorded on his crystal
a. You are a city inspector. You go undercover to a bakery and buy 30 loaves of bread marked 500g. Back at the lab you weigh them and find their masses to be 493, 503, 486, 489, 501, 498, 507, 504, 493, 487, 495, 498, 494, 490, 494, 497, 503, 498, 495, 503, 496, 492, 492, 495, 498, 490, 490, 497, and 482 g. you go back to the bakery and issue a warning. Why?
b. Later you return to the bakery (this time, they know you). They sell you 30 more loaves of bread. You take them home and find their masses to be 504, 503, 503, 503, 501, 500, 500, 501, 505, 501, 501, 500, 508, 503, 503, 500, 503, 501, 500, 502, 502, 501, 503, 501, 501, 502, 503, 501, 502 and 500 g. you’re satisfied, because all the loaves weight at least 500g. But your boss reads your report and tells you to go back and close the shop down. What did she notice that you missed?
4. Molten wax is placed into a cold metal pan; the wax becomes solid and the metal rises