The erosion of the shoreline might have adverse effects on the adjacent land and the fishes that inhabit these areas. (Sato & Mimura, 1997). Because of this, various technique have been used to stabilize shorelines throughout the world, these techniques are discussed in this article as well as how development of the coastline leads to coastline erosion.
Taking the development of the coastal regions in regards, coastal structures are the most common cause of shoreline erosion for instance ports, detached breakwaters and inlet jetties at tidal inlets and river mouths. (d’Angremond & Velden, 2001) Ports provide safe mooring and navigation for calling vessels; however, when built along the shoreline, it interferes with littoral drift. The result is then sedimentation and shoreline impact. The port causes trapping of sand causing sedimentation on the upstream side. (Bijker & Graff, 1982)
Structures that are meant to protect the coastline passively also at times contribute to erosion. Seawalls and revetments are constructed to stop erosion at some points; however, this stops the supply of sand into the sediment budget from this section of the shoreline. The adjacent shorelines will thus be exposed to an increase of erosion. There are appropriate procedures and measures that have been devised to counter the effect of erosion. These are soft or temporary and/or hard or permanent. (http://www.fao.org/forestry/media/13191/1/0)
Hard stabilization is erosion control measure that employs hardened structures, which make the shoreline steadier from further erosion. Examples are groins, jetties, concrete sea walls, rip-raps, bulkheads and stone reinforcements. They are very convenient in slowing down erosion rates in high energy environments. The drawbacks of this technique are that, it leads to loss of intertidal habitat and beach, alters the water dynamics and shoreline and often exacerbates seaward erosion of