For example, the thermal properties of polymers and composite structures can be altered through the use of a variety of fillers. The dimensions of the fillers fall on a macroscopic (1 µm-1mm) length scale (Brydson, 1999). These fillers augment the rigidity and heat deformation temperature of a polymer; because the filler makes a significant proportion of the total mass [10-40%]. Fillers and additives normally decrease the light transmission of a plastic. This report aims at discussing about the latest improvements in plastic and glass materials in the advancement of their properties, with regard to optical and thermal treatments. The report will commence by highlighting the basics of the optical and thermal properties of glass materials and PMC. Further, development in the enhancement of the properties will be outlined and evaluated to reveal latest developments and eventual achievements. Optical Properties of Plastics and Glasses Most optical elements are fabricated from glass, crystalline materials, polymers or plastic materials (Lokensgard, 2010). The Index of fraction is the property of materials upon which the reflectance of the material is dependence. This represents the measure of change in bearing of an incident ray of light as it passes through a surface boundary. With the choice of material having been the most fundamental properties are often the degree of transparency and the R.I. as well as each property’s spectral dependency. Glass technology has provided optical elements like lenses, prisms and filters (Miller and Kurtz, 2011). The transmission of light in plastics differs greatly in their ability to transmit light. Majority of plastic materials are opaque and the surface reflection of light off the plastic determines amount of gloss on the surface. The crystalline nature of a polymer determines their optical properties. The use of photolithography in printing integrated circuits has orchestrated improvement in the transmission glasses for the ultraviolet (UV) region (Malik and Raina 2004). This is done to enhance the physical properties of the material and to acquire an effective product in the manufacturing process. Plastic optics brings about a variety of plastics suitable for inexpensive, unbreakable lens for mass production (Lokensgard, 2010). Further, when difficult or unusual shapes, lightweight or economical mass-production techniques are required, plastics are preferred though, their precision optics is limited. Plastics demonstrate huge disparities in the refractive index (R.I.) with temperature change (Brydson, 1999). According to Miller and Kurtz (2011), the technology of concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) uses optical component(s) to focus optical flux onto a relatively small photovoltaic (PV) cell. The study by Miller and Kurtz reviews the durability of Frensel lenses used in the concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) application. The utilisation of optical property can be evidenced by the composite having substantial optical transparency produced by reinforcing poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with unidirectional borosilicate glass fibres (Miller et al. 2010). The achievement of the optical transparency of the compound was realised by harmonizing the refractive index (nD) of the glass fibre and polymer matrix to within ±0.002 (Optical Glass, 2000). Further, Miller et al (2010) argues that, the durability of
Name of Student Student’s Number The Physical Properties of Glass and Polymer Materials PMC Course Institution Date Report on the Physical Properties of Glass and Polymer Materials PMC. Introduction Glass and Polymer Materials (polymer matrix composites) are very essential in the industrial production of commodities for various projects…
There are two rules of thumb that have been given in comparing the density of materials i.e. titanium is nearly half the density of steel and that of aluminum is about one third the density of steel. Any heavy and weak material is considered bad but for a strong and light material is considered good.
Porous materials are different from other homogenous material in that they have two media for sound propagation, a solid phase comprising of the solid material itself and a fluid phase usually comprising of air in the pores of the material. The Biot theory is the most comprehensive model for studying the propagation of sound in poroelastic materials (Pan & Jackson 2009).
For these reasons, proper care and maintenance of windows should be done. The repairs carried out are determined by the material used for the window parts. Materials used in most cases are timber, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), aluminum, al-clad timber. These materials are subjected to environmental conditions that cause gradual deterioration to them.
The objective of the research was achieved through the assimilation of the published reports and developments on the topic covered by the period starting from the year 1998 to the present year. The general characterization of the POLED is also undertaken including the main theory of application, and the disadvantages and advantages of the utilization of the said technology.
This is classified into three groups. These are, simple diffusion transformation which has no change in the number of composition. Examples of which are the solidification of pure metal. More complex diffusion dependent transformation consist of some alteration in phase composition and the number of phase present with an example of eutectic reactions.
The two main basic components of a composite material are the reinforcement and the matrix. Classification of most composite material is done with respect to the matrix material. Based on the matrix material, composites can be classified into polymer matrix composites, metal matrix composites and ceramic matrix composites.
This article describes methods for manipulating microstructure and mechanical properties of these materials, and they include annealing of metals, ceramic nanotechnology, and injection mould manipulation technique of polymers.
Annealing involves heating of metals to a set color
The current focus on sustainable development in concrete technology aims at producing more environmentally friendly cement, which spawns less carbon dioxide and expends less energy. Such environmentally favorable cement is what is referred to as “green
Current engineers, however, apply automated machines in undertaking manufacturing works. Old machines are no longer applicable in the manufacturing process; automated machines outdo the role of old machines. Markillie emphasizes on the introduction of 3D
As the paper highlights structural materials are expected to have preferred mechanical characteristics, which include being waterproof materials that are both impermeable and resistant to water. In addition, the material for wall construction have to be insulated against heat and have good sound absorption.
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