ratures due to the difference in the thermal capacity of the surfaces (Peterson, T.C.; Gallo, K.P.; Lawrimore, J.; Owen, T.W.; Huang, A.; McKittrick, D.A. 1999). Many constructions around the world use concrete which has an Albedo value ranging from 0.1 to 0.35 and is also lighter in colour. These Albedo values are higher than those of other materials. The tall buildings in the urban areas provide surfaces for sunlight reflection and absorption leading to an increased heating rate of the urban areas. This is called the canyon effect that is the reverberation that multiple reflection produce in tall building framed streets.
These higher temperatures in urban areas are caused by different factors including: more buildings with running furnaces and air conditioners that produce and emit heat; many dark coloured asphalt paved areas; flat dark – coloured roofs; heavy traffic operated by internal combustion engines; and less reflective covers of snow during the winters (Yaghoobian, N.; Kleissl, J.