Check the instructions in the online course for more information.
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You know from your studies in Unit 1 that it takes energy to warm an object, more energy to convert it to a liquid (melt) and even more energy to convert it to a gas (boil) it. As seen in Figure 23.12 in your textbook, a graph of the change in temperature as a function of energy added has a characteristic “stair-step” appearance. In this lab you will be generating a phase change diagram as you convert ice to water and finally to steam.
Part B: Measure the amount of time it takes the water to start boiling and determine the temperature at which boiling occurs (remember that the higher your altitude, the lower your boiling temperature).
Part D: Calculate the amount of energy added in each step (warming ice, melting ice, warming water, boiling water, warming steam) using the accepted values for the specific heat of water, latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization.
1. Obtain approximately one cup of ice cubes and place them in a small container in the freezer. The